Epitope mapping and biological function analysis of antibodies produced by immunization of mice with an inactivated Chinese isolate of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV)

Laboratory of Nucleic Acid Vaccines, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 364 Plantation Street, Lazare Research Building, Worcester, MA 01605-2397, USA.
Virology (Impact Factor: 3.32). 04/2005; 334(1):134-43. DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2005.01.035
Source: PubMed


Inactivated severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) has been tested as a candidate vaccine against the re-emergence of SARS. In order to understand the efficacy and safety of this approach, it is important to know the antibody specificities generated with inactivated SARS-CoV. In the current study, a panel of twelve monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) was established by immunizing Balb/c mice with the inactivated BJ01 strain of SARS-CoV isolated from the lung tissue of a SARS-infected Chinese patient. These mAbs could recognize SARS-CoV-infected cells by immunofluorescence analysis (IFA). Seven of them were mapped to the specific segments of recombinant spike (S) protein: six on S1 subunit (aa 12-798) and one on S2 subunit (aa 797-1192). High neutralizing titers against SARS-CoV were detected with two mAbs (1A5 and 2C5) targeting at a subdomain of S protein (aa 310-535), consistent with the previous report that this segment of S protein contains the major neutralizing domain. Some of these S-specific mAbs were able to recognize cleaved products of S protein in SARS-CoV-infected Vero E6 cells. None of the remaining five mAbs could recognize either of the recombinant S, N, M, or E antigens by ELISA. This study demonstrated that the inactivated SARS-CoV was able to preserve the immunogenicity of S protein including its major neutralizing domain. The relative ease with which these mAbs were generated against SARS-CoV virions further supports that subunit vaccination with S constructs may also be able to protect animals and perhaps humans. It is somewhat unexpected that no N-specific mAbs were identified albeit anti-N IgG was easily identified in SARS-CoV-infected patients. The availability of this panel of mAbs also provided potentially useful agents with applications in therapy, diagnosis, and basic research of SARS-CoV.

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    • "A variety of methods have been utilized; for example, the traditional PEG cell fusion method and the phage display method (Sui et al., 2004; Chou et al., 2005; and Brink et al., 2005). Antigens for immunization include inactivated whole virus, recombinant S protein and RBD-Fc protein (He et al., 2004b; Chou et al., 2005; and Zhou et al., 2004). Here we used a modified recombinant vaccinia virus Ankara with SARS S protein on the surface as the antigen with which to immunize mice. "
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    ABSTRACT: The receptor-binding domain (RBD) on spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is the main region interacting with the viral receptor-ACE2 and is a useful target for induction of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV infection. Here we generated two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), targeting RBD, with marked virus neutralizing activity. The mAbs recognize a new conformational epitope which consists of several discontinuous peptides (aa. 343-367, 373-390 and 411-428) and is spatially located neighboring the receptor-binding motif (RPM) region of the RBD. Importantly, W423 and N424 residues are essential for mAb recognition and are highly conserved among 107 different strains of SARS, indicating that the residues are the most critical in the epitope which is a novel potential target for therapeutic mAbs. A human-mouse chimeric antibody, based upon the original murine mAb, was also constructed and shown to possess good neutralizing activity and high affinity.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2008 · Virology
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    • "Moreover, fragment Sg-g, which is recognized by all the examined sera, overlaps with a neutralizing domain located at residues 797–1192. This domain, which has been previously reported, can induce a protective antibody response against SARS-CoV infection (Chou et al., 2005; Wang et al., 2005). Taken together, we suggest that these E. coli-derived truncated S fragments are excellent targets for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. "
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    ABSTRACT: Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a newly emergent human disease, which requires rapid diagnosis and effective therapy. Among antibody sources, immunoglobulin Y (IgY) is the major antibody found in chicken eggs and can be used as an alternative to mammalian antibodies normally used in research and immunotherapy. In this study, phage-expressing chicken monoclonal scFv antibody was chosen and characterized with phage display antibody technology. Truncated fragments of SARS-CoV spike protein were cloned in pET-21 vector and expressed in BL-21 Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells. After purification, the purity of these recombinant spike proteins was examined on SDS-PAGE and their identity verified with Western blot analysis using anti-his antibodies and sera from convalescent stage SARS-CoV-infected patients. Using these bacteria-derived proteins to immunize chickens, it was found that polyclonal IgY antibodies in the egg yolk and sera were highly reactive to the immunogens, as shown by Western blot and immunocytochemical staining analysis. A phage displaying scFv library was also established from spleen B cells of immunized chicken with 5 x 10(7) clones. After four panning cycles, the eluted phage titer showed a 10-fold increase. In sequence analysis with chicken germline gene, five phage clones reacted, with large dissimilarities of between 31 and 62%, in the complementarity-determining regions, one dominant phage 4S1 had strong binding to fragment Se-e, located between amino acid residues 456-650 of the spike protein and this particular phage had significantly strong binding to SARS-CoV-infected Vero E6 cells. Based on the results, we conclude that generating specific scFv-expressing phage binders with the phage display system can be successfully achieved and that this knowledge can be applied in clinical or academic research.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2007 · Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
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