Estrogen and brain inflammation: Effects on microglial expression of MHC, costimulatory molecules and cytokines
To model the effects of estrogen on adaptive immunity in the brain, we examined the effects of 17beta-estradiol on microglial parameters related to antigen presentation and T cell activation. Specifically, the effects of 17beta-estradiol on basal and LPS-induced surface staining of Class I and II MHC, as well as CD40, CD80, CD86, CD152, CD28, CD8, CD11b, Fas, FasL, and also ERalpha and ERbeta, were examined in N9 microglial cells. Additionally, the effects of 17beta-estradiol on basal and LPS-induced release of cytokines (TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10) were determined. Data indicate that estrogen increases IL-10 while decreasing TNFalpha and IFNgamma release from resting and LPS-stimulated N9 cells. Additionally, LPS-induced surface staining of MHC Class I, CD40, and CD86 was significantly attenuated by estrogen pretreatment. The basal percentage of cells positive for MHC Class I and II, CD40, and CD152, Fas, and FasL was significantly decreased by estrogen exposure. However, CD8, CD86, CD11b, and CD28 were unaffected by estrogen, and CD80 cell surface staining significantly increased following estrogen exposure. Taken together, these data indicate that estrogen can significantly decrease components of adaptive immunity in microglial cells, and highlight the multi-faceted regulatory effects of estrogen on microglial parameters related to antigen presentation and T cell interaction.