Article

Bacteremic Typhoid Fever in Children in an Urban Slum, Bangladesh

ICDDR,B Centre for Health and Population Research, Mohakhali, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh.
Emerging infectious diseases (Impact Factor: 6.75). 03/2005; 11(2):326-9. DOI: 10.3201/eid1102.040422
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

We confirmed a bacteremic typhoid fever incidence of 3.9 episodes/1,000 person-years during fever surveillance in a Dhaka urban slum. The relative risk for preschool children compared with older persons was 8.9. Our regression model showed that these children were clinically ill, which suggests a role for preschool immunization.

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    • "We looked at the hospitalization rate in blood cultureconfirmed typhoid cases from 14 selected populationbased studies. The weighted mean hospitalization rates by regions using random effect models from eight stud- ies[9,10,13,15,17,18,21,30,33]conducted in 13 sites were presented in Fig. 3. Hospitalization rate was highest in South-Eastern and Eastern Asia region which had passive surveillance. Hospitalization was least in Southern Asia where most sites had active surveillance . "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The control of typhoid fever being an important public health concern in low and middle income countries, improving typhoid surveillance will help in planning and implementing typhoid control activities such as deployment of new generation Vi conjugate typhoid vaccines. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review of longitudinal population-based blood culture-confirmed typhoid fever studies from low and middle income countries published from 1 st January 1990 to 31 st December 2013. We quantitatively summarized typhoid fever incidence rates and qualitatively reviewed study methodology that could have influenced rate estimates. We used meta-analysis approach based on random effects model in summarizing the hospitalization rates. Results Twenty-two papers presented longitudinal population-based and blood culture-confirmed typhoid fever incidence estimates from 20 distinct sites in low and middle income countries. The reported incidence and hospitalizations rates were heterogeneous as well as the study methodology across the sites. We elucidated how the incidence rates were underestimated in published studies. We summarized six categories of under-estimation biases observed in these studies and presented potential solutions. Conclusions Published longitudinal typhoid fever studies in low and middle income countries are geographically clustered and the methodology employed has a potential for underestimation. Future studies should account for these limitations.
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    • "Countries like India, Indonesia, Bangladesh and Pakistan have been identified as high risk sites for infections caused by Salmonella spp. (Bahl et al. 2004;Brooks et al. 2005;Ochiai et al. 2008). Previous studies have indicated the prevalence of Salmonellae in surface and potable waters in India (Jyoti et al. 2010;. "

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    • "Typhoid fever is a major problem in developing countries with infants and children as well as adults being affected [1] [2] [3]. Along with improvements in water and sanitation, vaccines could play an important role in the control of the disease. "
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