Increasing Incidence of Late Second Malignancies After Conditioning With Cyclophosphamide and Total-Body Irradiation and Autologous Bone Marrow Transplantation for Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
Journal of Clinical Oncology (Impact Factor: 18.43). 05/2005; 23(10):2208-14. DOI: 10.1200/JCO.2005.05.158
Source: PubMed


Although the risk of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) has been well-described following autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT), the risk of solid tumors has been poorly characterized. We report the incidence and outcome of solid tumors at 10-year follow-up in a large cohort of uniformly treated patients who underwent ABMT for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL).
Between 1982 and 1997, 605 patients underwent ABMT for B-cell NHL, with uniform conditioning with cyclophosphamide and total-body irradiation followed by reinfusion of autologous bone marrow purged with anti-B-cell monoclonal antibodies. Current information on relapse of disease and second malignancies was obtained via an institutional review board-approved questionnaire sent to the referring oncologists.
Forty-two solid tumors, six non-MDS hematologic malignancies, 39 nonmelanoma skin cancers, and 68 cases of MDS/acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) were observed at a median follow-up of 9.5 years. A cumulative incidence model using death as a competing risk found that the 10-year incidence of second malignancy is 21%, with 10.0% non-MDS malignancies. The projected incidence of all malignancies at 15 years is 29%. The principal risk factor for second malignancy is increased age at ABMT (P = .0002). In the entire cohort, 9.6% of patients have died of second malignancy.
Lengthy follow-up demonstrates a significant incidence of second malignancies after ABMT for NHL. Although the incidence of MDS/AML starts to plateau, the incidence of solid tumors continues to rise. Second malignancies are responsible for a significant fraction of overall mortality following ABMT.

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