Pohl G, Ho CL, Kurman RJ, Bristow R, Wang TL, Shih Ie M.. Inactivation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway as a potential target-based therapy in ovarian serous tumors with KRAS or BRAF mutations. Cancer Res 65: 1994-2000

Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland 21231, USA.
Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 9.33). 04/2005; 65(5):1994-2000. DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-3625
Source: PubMed


Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) occurs in response to various growth stimulating signals and as a result of activating mutations of the upstream regulators, KRAS and BRAF, which can be found in many types of human cancer. To investigate the roles of MAPK activation in tumors harboring KRAS or BRAF mutations, we inactivated MAPK in ovarian tumor cells using CI-1040, a compound that selectively inhibits MAPK kinase, an upstream regulator of MAPK and thus prevents MAPK activation. Profound growth inhibition and apoptosis were observed in CI-1040-treated tumor cells with mutations in either KRAS or BRAF in comparison with the ovarian cancer cells containing wild-type sequences. Long serial analysis of gene expression identified several differentially expressed genes in CI-1040-treated MPSC1 cells harboring an activating mutation in BRAF (V599L). The most striking changes were down-regulation of cyclin D1, COBRA1, and transglutaminase-2 and up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-induced ligand, thrombospondin-1, optineurin, and palladin. These patterns of gene expression were validated in other CI-1040-treated tumor cells based on quantitative PCR. Constitutive expression of cyclin D1 partially reversed the growth inhibitory effect of CI-1040 in MPSC1 cells. Our findings indicate that an activated MAPK pathway is critical in tumor growth and survival of ovarian tumors with KRAS or BRAF mutations and suggest that the CI-1040 induced phenotypes depend on the mutational status of KRAS and BRAF in ovarian tumors.

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    • "It has been shown that PMA and As2O3 induce migration and invasion of tumor cells by activating the MAPK signaling pathways, and is associated with the process of reconstruction of cytoskeletal actin filaments (18). A previous study has shown that the MAPK pathways have a significant role in the development and differentiation of ovarian cancer caused by KRAS and BRAF mutations (19). The study by Yao et al (20) on breast cancer, suggested that the phosphorylation level of ERK1/2 in breast cancer cells was substantially higher as compared with normal breast cells, suggesting that the overexpression of ERK1/2 protein is of great importance in the occurrence and progression of breast cancer (20). "
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    ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to investigate the role of JWA gene in the proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and migration of PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells and the effect on the MAPK signaling pathway. Human PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells were cultured in vitro, and small interfering RNA (siRNA) was designed for the JWA gene. The siRNA was transfected into PANC-1 cells. Subsequently, the cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay; cell apoptosis was detected by analyzing BAX and Bcl-2 protein expression; cell migration and invasion were measured using Transwell(®) chambers; and the protein expression of JWA and ERK1/2, JNK and p38 and their phosphorylated forms were measured by western blotting. By utilizing the MTT assay, the results showed that when JWA protein expression was inhibited, the proliferation of PANC-1 cells was enhanced. In addition, the expression of apoptosis-associated protein (AAP) BAX was substantially decreased, while the expression of the apoptosis inhibitor gene, Bcl-2, was significantly enhanced. Using Transwell chambers, it was found that the number of penetrating PANC-1 cells was significantly increased after transfection with JWA siRNA, suggesting that the migration and invasion of the cells was substantially increased. By studying the association between JWA and the MAPK pathway in PANC-1 cells, it was found that the expression of p-ERK1/2 of the MAPK pathway was significantly downregulated following JWA siRNA transfection. However, the expression levels of ERK1/2, JNK, p38, p-JNK and p-p38 showed no significant differences. In conclusion, it was shown that JWA affects the proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and migration of PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells which could be attributed to effects on the expression of ERK1/2 in the MAPK pathway.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Oncology letters
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    • "A better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of low-grade serous carcinomas would lead to rational evaluation of new targeted agents for the treatment of this disease. Reports point towards a high frequency of KRAS and BRAF mutations in low-grade OSCs, making this pathway an attractive therapeutic target by interfering with its downstream effectors [25,26]. The preliminary promising results of a phase II clinical trial evaluating AZD6244 (selumetenib), an inhibitor of MEK-1/2, have been reported [27]. "
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of p53, MAPK, topoisomerase II alpha (topoII alpha) and Ki67 in ovarian serous carcinomas (OSCs) along with mutational analysis for KRAS and BRAF. METHODS: Eighty one cases of OSCs were reviewed and examined immunohistochemically using antibodies against p53, MAPK, topoII alpha and Ki67. Staining was evaluated as a percentage of immunopositive cells with cut-off levels at 10% for p53 and topoII alpha, and 5% for MAPK. The Ki67 immunoexpression was assessed by means of Olympus Image Analysis System as a percentage of immunopositive cells in 1000 tumor cells. KRAS and BRAF mutational analysis was performed on 73 available microdissected samples. RESULTS: Of 81 cases of OSCs 13.6% were of low-grade and 86.4% were of high-grade morphology. In the high-grade group there was a significantly higher immunoexpression of p53 (P < 0.001) and topoII alpha (P = 0.001), with Ki67 median 56.5 vs. 19 in low-grade group (P < 0.001). The difference in immunoexpression of active MAPK between low- and high-grade group was also significant (P = 0.003). MAPK positive immunostaining was detected in 63.6% of low-grade vs. 17.1% of high-grade OSCs. The frequency of KRAS mutation was significantly higher in low-grade as compared to high-grade group (P = 0.006). None of the samples had BRAF mutation. In addition, we detected positive MAPK immunoexpression in 13/59 samples with wild-type KRAS, suggesting that activation of MAPK pathway is not ultimately related either to KRAS or BRAF mutation. Seven morphologically high-grade samples (11.7%) showed both KRAS mutation and p53 immunopositivity. CONCLUSIONS: Although this study is limited by its humble number of low-grade samples, our data fit the proposed dualistic pathway of ovarian carcinogenesis. Mutational analysis for KRAS and BRAF discloses some possible interactions between different tumorigenic pathways of lowand high-grade carcinomas. Immunohistochemical staining for MAPK was not sufficiently sensitive, nor specific, to precisely predict the KRAS mutation. However, it appears to be quite reliable in ruling out a KRAS mutation if the staining is negative. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · Diagnostic Pathology
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    • "The detection of mutations in KRAS and BRAF has gained increasing significance with the advent of targeted therapies showing promise in human cancer with constitutive activation of the MAPK pathway and, specifically, the BRAF V600E mutation [29]. In serous ovarian tumors, preclinical studies demonstrating a profound effect of MAPK pathway inhibition with the compound CI-1040 on tumor cells with either BRAF or KRAS mutations indicate that this approach may show clinical potential [18] [19]. Of interest, it has recently been shown by whole exome sequencing that lowgrade serous ovarian tumors contain very few mutations other than those affecting BRAF and KRAS, indicating that the MAPK activation is, indeed, of central importance for the pathogenesis of these neoplasms [14]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations of components of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, mainly BRAF, are common in serous ovarian borderline tumors, whereas high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas rarely show this feature. With the advent of specific kinase inhibitors active against BRAF-mutated cancers, rapid and sensitive detection of the BRAF V600E, by far the most common mutation of this gene, is of great practical relevance. Currently, BRAF mutations are detected by DNA-based techniques. Recently, a monoclonal antibody (VE1) specific for the BRAF V600E protein suitable for archival tissues has been described. In this study, we compared detection of the V600E mutation in serous ovarian tumors by VE1 immunostaining and by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. All 141 cases of high-grade serous ovarian cancer showed negative or rarely weak, diffuse background VE1 immunostaining, and BRAF wild type was confirmed by molecular analysis in all tested cases. In contrast, 1 (14%) of 7 low-grade serous carcinomas and 22 (71%) of 31 serous borderline tumors revealed moderate to strong VE1 positivity. Immunostaining was clearly evaluable in all cases with sufficient tumor cells, and only rare cases with narrow cytoplasm were difficult to interpret. The V600E mutation was confirmed by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction and sequencing in all VE1-positive cases. Two VE1-positive cases with low epithelial cell content required repeat microdissection to confirm the presence of the mutation. Immunohistochemistry with the VE1 antibody is a specific and sensitive tool for detection of the BRAF V600E mutation in serous ovarian tumors and may provide a practical screening test, especially in tumor samples with low epithelial content.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · Human pathology
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