Growth hormone at breeding modifies conceptus development and postnatal growth in sheep
Division of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown 26506, USA. Journal of Animal Science
(Impact Factor: 2.11).
Experiments were performed to determine the effects of components of the GH-IGF axis on conceptus development and postnatal growth in sheep. In Exp. 1, ewes received one of the following treatments: 1) sustained release GH at breeding, 2) sustained release GH at breeding and estradiol-17beta at d 5 and 6, 3) only estradiol-17beta at d 5 and 6, or 4) no treatment. Uteri were flushed on d 7, and flushings were analyzed for content of IGF-I. A single injection of sustained-release bovine GH at breeding increased IGF-I content in uterine luminal flushings compared with control ewes (P < 0.05). Treatment with estradiol-17beta on d 5 and 6 after breeding did not alter IGF-I content compared with control ewes, and it blocked the effect of GH on uterine luminal IGF-I content. In Exp. 2, sustained release GH or no treatment was administered at breeding, and gravid uteri were collected at d 25, 80, or 140 of gestation. On d 80, GH-treated ewes had smaller chorioallantoic weights (P < 0.05) and tended to have more efficient placentae (fetal weight/total placental weight; P = 0.052), with a higher percentage of placental weight as cotyledons (P = 0.068) compared with control ewes. In Exp. 3, ewes were treated with or without sustained release GH at progesterone withdrawal. Lambs from GH-treated ewes were heavier at birth (P < 0.05). Lambs from GH-treated ewes reared as singles, but not lambs reared as multiples, were heavier at 30, 60 (P < 0.05), and 75 d (P = 0.075) of age than lambs from control ewes. In conclusion, ewes treated with sustained-release GH at breeding developed smaller, more efficient placentas, and had larger lambs at birth.
Available from: Kimberly A Vonnahme
- "The concentration of IGF-I in plasma was determined with the use of a commercially available ELISA (Diagnostic Systems Laboratories Inc, Webster, TX, USA)  . Briefly, this assay used 2 antibodies in a sandwich-type immunoassay . "
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ABSTRACT: Objectives were to examine effects of selenium (Se) supply and maternal nutritional plane during gestation on placental size at term and maternal endocrine profiles throughout gestation and early lactation. Ewe lambs (n = 84) were allocated to treatments that included Se supply of adequate Se (ASe; 11.5 μg/kg BW) or high Se (HSe; 77 μg/kg BW) initiated at breeding and nutritional plane of 60% (RES), 100% (CON), or 140% (EXC) of requirements beginning on day 40 of gestation. At parturition, lambs were removed from their dams, and ewes were transitioned to a common diet that met requirements of lactation. Blood samples were taken from a subset of ewes (n = 42) throughout gestation, during parturition, and throughout lactation to determine hormone concentrations. Cotyledon number was reduced (P = 0.03) in RES and EXC ewes compared with CON ewes. Placental delivery time tended (P = 0.08) to be shorter in HSe ewes than in ASe ewes, whereas placental delivery time was longer (P = 0.02) in RES ewes than in CON and EXC ewes. During gestation, maternal progesterone, estradiol-17β, and GH were increased (P < 0.05) in RES ewes and decreased (P < 0.05) in EXC ewes compared with CON ewes. In contrast, maternal cortisol, IGF-I, prolactin, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine were decreased in RES ewes and increased in EXC ewes compared with CON ewes during gestation. Selenium supply did not alter maternal hormone profiles during gestation. During parturition and lactation, maternal hormone concentrations were influenced by both Se and maternal nutritional plane. During the parturient process, HSe ewes tended to have greater (P = 0.06) concentrations of estradiol-17β than ASe ewes. Three hours after parturition a surge of GH was observed in ASe-RES ewes that was muted in HSe-RES ewes and not apparent in other ewes. Growth hormone area under the curve during the parturient process was increased (P < 0.05) in ASe-RES vs HSe-RES ewes. Ewes that were overfed during gestation had reduced (P < 0.05) estradiol-17β but greater IGF-I, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine (P < 0.05) compared with RES ewes. Even though ewes were transitioned to a common diet after parturition, endocrine status continued to be affected into lactation. Moreover, it appears that gestational diet may partially affect lactational performance through altered endocrine status.
Available from: Claire T Roberts
- " 1995 ) D30 – 70 D113 ( 100% ) ND ↔ fetal weight ↔ fetal viability ( Okere et al . 1997 ) D97 – 115 D113 ( 100% ) ↑ circulating glucose ↑ circulating insulin ↑ circulating fatty acids ↔ birth weight ( Kveragas et al . 1986 ) Sheep D7 – 30 Singleton and twin pregnancies P1 ( 100% ) ND In singleton but not twin pregnancies : ↑ birth weights by 10% ( Costine et al . 2005 ; Koch et al . 2010 ) D35 – 55 Only twin pregnancies D55 ( 37% ) ↔ weight gain ↔ fetal weight ( Wright et al . 2008 ) D70 – 84 or D98 – 112 Singleton and twin pregnancies D85 ( 56% ) or D113 ( 75% ) ↔ energy intake ↑ uterine weight ↑ circulating insulin ↑ circulating fatty acids ↑ circulating glucose D70 – 84 : ↔ fetal weight D98 – 112 "
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ABSTRACT: Maternal insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) play a pivotal role in modulating fetal growth via their actions on both the mother and the placenta. Circulating IGFs influence maternal tissue growth and metabolism, thereby regulating nutrient availability for the growth of the conceptus. Maternal IGFs also regulate placental morphogenesis, substrate transport and hormone secretion, all of which influence fetal growth either via indirect effects on maternal substrate availability, or through direct effects on the placenta and its capacity to supply nutrients to the fetus. The extent to which IGFs influence the mother and/or placenta are dependent on the species and maternal factors, including age and nutrition. As altered fetal growth is associated with increased perinatal morbidity and mortality and a greater risk of developing degenerative diseases in adult life, understanding the role of maternal IGFs during pregnancy is essential in order to identify mechanisms underlying altered fetal growth and offspring programming.
Available from: animalsciencepublications.org
- "The concentration of IGF-I in plasma was determined using a commercially available ELISA previously validated in our laboratory (Diagnostic Systems Laboratories Inc., Webster, TX; Costine et al., 2005). "
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ABSTRACT: Research in the area of fetal programming has focused on intrauterine growth restriction. Few studies have attempted to examine programming mechanisms that ultimately lead to lambs with a greater potential for postnatal growth. We previously demonstrated that treatment of ewes with GH at the time of breeding led to an increase in birth weight. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of a single injection of sustained-release GH given during the periconceptional period on fetal growth and development and to determine if the GH axis would be altered in these offspring. Estrus was synchronized using 2 injections of PGF(2alpha); at the time of the second injection, ewes assigned to treatment were also given an injection of sustained-release GH. A maternal jugular vein sample was taken weekly to analyze IGF-I as a proxy for GH to estimate the duration of the treatment effect. In ewes treated with GH, IGF-I increased (P < 0.05) by wk 1 and remained elevated until wk 4 postinjection. Lambs were weighed, crown-rump length and abdominal girth were determined, and a plasma sample was collected. In a subset of male lambs, liver, heart, and brain weights were obtained, as well as left and right ventricular wall thicknesses. On postnatal d 100, a subset of ewe lambs were weighed and challenged with an intravenous injection of GHRH. Lambs from treated ewes had increased (P < 0.05) birth weight and abdominal girth compared with control lambs; however, there was no difference in crown-rump length. Expression of GH receptor and IGF-I were increased (P < 0.05) in lambs gestated by GH-treated ewes compared with control ewes. The left ventricular wall was thinner (P < 0.05) from lambs in the GH-treated group compared with control lambs. On postnatal d 100, those ewe lambs born to ewes treated with GH continued to be heavier (P < 0.05) and had no IGF-I response to GHRH challenge. In conclusion, treating ewes with a single injection of GH appeared to alter fetal growth and development. Lambs born to ewes treated with GH were larger at birth and had altered organ development, which may indicate that early maternal GH treatment may lead to permanent changes in the developing fetus. The ewe lambs maintained their growth performance to at least 100 d of postnatal life and appeared to have an altered GH axis, as demonstrated by the altered response to GHRH.
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