Adult mesenchymal stem cells: Potential for muscle and tendon regeneration and use in gene therapy

Osiris Therapeutics, Inc., Baltimore, Maryland 21231, USA.
Journal of musculoskeletal & neuronal interactions (Impact Factor: 1.74). 07/2002; 2(4):309-20.
Source: PubMed


The expansion potential and plasticity of stem cells, adult or embryonic, offer great promise for their use in medical therapies. Recent provocative data suggest that the differentiation potential of adult stem cells may extend to lineages beyond those usually associated with the germ layer of origin. In this review, we describe recent developments related to adult stem cell research and in particular, in the arena of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) research. Research demonstrates that transduced MSCs injected into skeletal muscle can persist and express secreted gene products. The ability of the MSC to differentiate into cardiomyocytes has been reported and their ability to engraft and modify the pathology in infarcted animal models is of great interest. Research using MSCs in tendon repair provides information on the effects of physical forces on phenotype and gene expression. In turn, MSCs produce changes in their matrix environment in response to those biomechanical forces. Recent data support the potential of MSCs to repair tendon, ligament, meniscus and other connective tissues. Therapeutic applications of adult stem cells are approaching clinical use in several fields, furthering the possibility to regenerate damaged and diseased tissue.

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    • "Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are multipotent stem cells capable of differentiation into numerous cell types, including fibroblasts, bone and cartilage, muscle, and brain cells (Pittenger et al., 2002; Orlic et al., 2001; Yoon et al., 2005; Ferrari et al., 1998; Lee et al., 2004; Oswald et al., 2004). Differentiation of BMSCs is a crucial aspect of bone formation and fracture healing. "
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    ABSTRACT: Bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) adhesion and migration are fundamental to a number of pathophysiologic processes, including fracture and wound healing. Vitamin C is beneficial for bone formation, fracture repair and wound healing. However, the role of the vitamin C transporter in BMSC adhesion, migration and wound healing is not known. In this study, we knocked-down the sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter, SVCT2, the only known transporter of vitamin C in BMSCs, and performed cell adhesion, migration, in-vitro scratch wound healing and F-actin re-arrangement studies. We also investigated the role of oxidative stress on the above processes. Our results demonstrate that both oxidative stress and down-regulation of SVCT2 decreased cell attachment and spreading. A trans-well cell migration assay showed that vitamin C helped in BMSC migration and that knockdown of SVCT2 decreased cell migration. In the in-vitro scratch wound healing studies, we established that oxidative stress dose-dependently impairs wound healing. Furthermore, the supplementation of vitamin C significantly rescued the BMSCs from oxidative stress and increased wound closing. The knockdown of SVCT2 in BMSCs strikingly decreased wound healing, and supplementing with vitamin C failed to rescue cells efficiently. The knockdown of SVCT2 and induction of oxidative stress in cells produced an alteration in cytoskeletal dynamics. Signaling studies showed that oxidative stress phosphorylated members of the MAP kinase family (p38) and that vitamin C inhibited their phosphorylation. Taken together, these results indicate that both the SVCT2 transporter and oxidative stress play a vital role in BMSC attachment, migration and cytoskeletal re-arrangement. BMSC-based cell therapy and modulation of SVCT2 could lead to a novel therapeutic approach that enhances bone remodeling, fracture repair and wound healing in chronic disease conditions.
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    • "It is also a niche for a large panel of multipotent Adipose tissue-derived Stem Cells (ASC) contributing to its roles as an energy storage and endocrine tissue. The commitments of ACS give rise to various cell types (myoblasts, osteoblasts, chondroblasts or adipoblasts) depending on the appropriate stimuli [2] [3]. Among others, these cells will develop into preadipocytes and endothelial cells [4-7]. "

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases
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    • "The technique is simple and the treatment is not invasive. Finally, the advantages of using the mononuclear cells immediately after the bone marrow is collected, are that the surgery can be performed the same day, the cells do not need to be expanded in vitro, they preserve their osteogenic potential to form bone and promote the proper integration of the implant with the bone (Pittenger et al. 2002; Takigami et al. 2007) and lastly, the technique is easier and the costs are lower. We used a fully resorbable biomaterial to obtain a complete substitution of the biomaterial scaffold with newly formed bone (Mastrogiacomo et al. 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study is to evaluate the clinical application in veterinary orthopedics of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) and cultured bone marrow stromal cells (cBMSCs) for the treatment of some orthopaedic lesions in the dog. The authors carried out a clinical study on 14 dogs of different breed, age and size with the following lesions: 1 bone cyst of the glenoid rime; 2 nonunion of the tibia; 3 nonunion of the femur; 2 lengthening of the radius; 1 large bone defect of the distal radius;1 nonunion with carpus valgus; 4 Legg-Calvé-Perthés disease. In 9 cases the BMMCNs were used in combination with a three dimensional resorbable osteogenic scaffold the chemical composition and size of which facilitates the ingrowth of bone. In these cases the BMMNCs were suspended in an adequate amount of fibrin glue and then distribuited uniformly on a Tricalcium-Phosphate (TCP) scaffold onto which were also added some drops of thrombin. In 1 case of nonunion of the tibia and in 3 cases of Legg-Calvè-Perthés (LCP) disease the cultured BMSCs were used instead because of the small size of the dogs and of the little amount of aspirated bone marrow. X-ray examinations were performed immediately after the surgery. Clinical, ultrasounds and X-ray examinations were performed after 20 days and then every month. Until now the treated dogs have shown very good clinical and X-ray results. One of the objectives of the study was to use the BMMNCs in clinical application in orthopaedic lesions in the dog. The advantages of using the cells immediately after the bone marrow is collected, are that the surgery can be performed the same day, the cells do not need to be expanded in vitro, they preserve their osteogenic potential to form bone and promote the proper integration of the implant with the bone and lastly, the technique is easier and the costs are lower.
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