Musical imagery—Sound of silence activates auditory cortex

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755, USA.
Nature (Impact Factor: 41.46). 04/2005; 434(7030):158. DOI: 10.1038/434158a
Source: PubMed


Auditory imagery occurs when one mentally rehearses telephone numbers or has a song 'on the brain'--it is the subjective experience of hearing in the absence of auditory stimulation, and is useful for investigating aspects of human cognition. Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify and characterize the neural substrates that support unprompted auditory imagery and find that auditory and visual imagery seem to obey similar basic neural principles.

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    • "auditory imagery studies (e.g.Bunzeck, Wuestenberg, Lutz, Heinze, & Jancke, 2005;Halpern & Zatorre, 1999;Herholz, Halpern, & Zatorre, 2012;Shergill et al., 2001;Zatorre et al., 1996). It should be noted, however, that some auditory imagery work has reported primary auditory cortex activation (e.g.Kraemer et al., 2005;see Zatorre & Halpern, 2005for a review), but we speculate that imagining different levels of content complexity may require multiple levels of auditory processing, which could result in the recruitment of different stages along the auditory perceptual hierarchy. In the current study, we use spoken syllables as stimuli. "
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    ABSTRACT: Sensory cortices can be activated without any external stimuli. Yet, it is still unclear how this perceptual reactivation occurs and which neural structures mediate this reconstruction process. In this study, we employed fMRI with mental imagery paradigms to investigate the neural networks involved in perceptual reactivation. Subjects performed two speech imagery tasks: articulation imagery (AI) and hearing imagery (HI). We found that AI induced greater activity in frontal-parietal sensorimotor systems, including sensorimotor cortex, subcentral (BA 43), middle frontal cortex (BA 46) and parietal operculum (PO), whereas HI showed stronger activation in regions that have been implicated in memory retrieval: middle frontal (BA 8), inferior parietal cortex and intraparietal sulcus. Moreover, posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG) was activated more in AI compared with HI, suggesting that covert motor processes induced stronger perceptual reactivation in the auditory cortices. These results suggest that motor-to-perceptual transformation and memory retrieval act as two complementary mechanisms to internally reconstruct corresponding perceptual outcomes. These two mechanisms can serve as a neurocomputational foundation for predicting perceptual changes, either via a previously learned relationship between actions and their perceptual consequences or via stored perceptual experiences of stimulus and episodic or contextual regularity.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Cortex
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    • "The involvement of STG in auditory imagery has been suggested to reflect the reconstruction of sound-like representations via higher order cortical mechanisms, contributing to the subjective experience of " hearing " (Kraemer et al. 2005; Zatorre and Halpern 2005). The superior parietal cortex is associated with the manipulation of imagined auditory events, for example when the task requires participants to mentally reverse the notes of a melody (Zatorre et al. 2010). "

    Full-text · Dataset · Dec 2015
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    • "Auditory imagery appears in a variety of forms such as silent reading, speech perception, auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia and in conversations with spiritual beings, earworms and most relevant to this study, musical imagery (Barrett and Etheridge 1992; Beaman and Williams 2010; Harley 2010; Kraemer et al. 2005; Luckoff 2007; McGuire et al. 1996). For example, Kraemer et al. (2005) monitored participants using an fMRI scanner and asked them to passively listen to excerpts of familiar songs such as 'Satisfaction' by The Rolling Stones and The Pink Panther theme tune as well as other less familiar songs. At numerous points throughout the songs, short sections (2 to 5 s long) were removed and replaced with silence. "
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    ABSTRACT: We report two experiments exploring whether imagining music improves spatial rotation via increases in arousal and mood levels (Schellenberg 2005). To aid their imagination, participants were given instructions (none, basic or detailed) and lyrics (present or absent). Experiment 1 showed no effect of instructions or lyrics on performance although participants felt that the presence of the lyrics helped. Experiment 2 was identical to Experiment 1 except that the participants were musicians (as evidenced by musical experience and/or qualification). This time there was a significant effect of instructions in that those who received the detailed instructions performed significantly better than the no instruction condition although the presence of lyrics did not help. Further research is required to establish the similarity of the imagination to the traditional arousal and mood effect but the phenomenon may be useful for short-term boosts in spatial rotation activities.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Current Psychology
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