Pkd1 regulates immortalized proliferation of renal tubular epithelial cells through p53 induction and JNK activation

Teikyo University, Edo, Tokyo, Japan
Journal of Clinical Investigation (Impact Factor: 13.22). 05/2005; 115(4):910-8. DOI: 10.1172/JCI22850
Source: PubMed


Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common human monogenic genetic disorder and is characterized by progressive bilateral renal cysts and the development of renal insufficiency. The cystogenesis of ADPKD is believed to be a monoclonal proliferation of PKD-deficient (PKD(-/-)) renal tubular epithelial cells. To define the function of Pkd1, we generated chimeric mice by aggregation of Pkd1(-/-) ES cells and Pkd1(+/+) morulae from ROSA26 mice. As occurs in humans with ADPKD, these mice developed cysts in the kidney, liver, and pancreas. Surprisingly, the cyst epithelia of the kidney were composed of both Pkd1(-/-) and Pkd1(+/+) renal tubular epithelial cells in the early stages of cystogenesis. Pkd1(-/-) cyst epithelial cells changed in shape from cuboidal to flat and replaced Pkd1(+/+) cyst epithelial cells lost by JNK-mediated apoptosis in intermediate stages. In late-stage cysts, Pkd1(-/-) cells continued immortalized proliferation with downregulation of p53. These results provide a novel understanding of the cystogenesis of ADPKD patients. Furthermore, immortalized proliferation without induction of p53 was frequently observed in 3T3-type culture of mouse embryonic fibroblasts from Pkd1(-/-) mice. Thus, Pkd1 plays a role in preventing immortalized proliferation of renal tubular epithelial cells through the induction of p53 and activation of JNK.

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Available from: Saori Nishio, Mar 27, 2015
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    • "The main hypothesis in the field currently proposes that disease onset in ADPKD is triggered by somatic "second hit" mutations that inactivate the functional copy of the PKD gene followed by colonal expansion of the affected cells [35]. However, other studies indicate that polycystins are expressed in most cyst lining cells, and even "wild-type" cells can contribute, to a large extent, to cyst growth in the presence of PKD1 mutant cells in chimeric mice, suggesting that somatic mutations may not be the only mechanism to induced ADPKD [36-40]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Autosomal dominant (AD) diseases result when a single mutant or non-functioning gene is present on an autosomal chromosome. These diseases often do not emerge at birth. There are presently two prevailing theories explaining the expression of AD diseases. One explanation originates from the Knudson two-hit theory of hereditary cancers, where loss of heterozygosity or occurrence of somatic mutations impairs the function of the wild-type copy. While these somatic second hits may be sufficient for stable disease states, it is often difficult to determine if their occurrence necessarily marks the initiation of disease progression. A more direct consequence of a heterozygous genetic background is haploinsufficiency, referring to a lack of sufficient gene function due to reduced wild-type gene copy number; however, haploinsufficiency can involve a variety of additional mechanisms, such as noise in gene expression or protein levels, injury and second hit mutations in other genes. In this study, we explore the possible contribution to the onset of autosomal dominant diseases from intrinsic factors, such as those determined by the structure of the molecular networks governing normal cellular physiology. First, simple models of single gene insufficiency using the positive feedback loops that may be derived from a three-component network were studied by computer simulation using Bionet software. The network structure is shown to affect the dynamics considerably; some networks are relatively stable even when large stochastic variations in are present, while others exhibit switch-like dynamics. In the latter cases, once the network switches over to the disease state it remains in that state permanently. Model pathways for two autosomal dominant diseases, AD polycystic kidney disease and mature onset diabetes of youth (MODY) were simulated and the results are compared to known disease characteristics. By identifying the intrinsic mechanisms involved in the onset of AD diseases, it may be possible to better assess risk factors as well as lead to potential new drug targets. To illustrate the applicability of this study of pathway dynamics, we simulated the primary pathways involved in two autosomal dominant diseases, Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) and mature onset diabetes of youth (MODY). Simulations demonstrate that some of the primary disease characteristics are consistent with the positive feedback-stochastic variation theory presented here. This has implications for new drug targets to control these diseases by blocking the positive feedback loop in the relevant pathways.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2010 · BMC Systems Biology
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    • "Kidneys of inv as well as invΔC mice also are shown to increase cell proliferation [19]. Although the exact mechanisms that induce cell proliferation are unknown in renal cystic diseases, the abnormality of several intracellular signaling pathways has been reported [1, 7, 8, 17, 18, 22]. In inv mutants, lack of inv protein is proposed, but has not been shown to induce continuous activation of the canonical wnt pathway, which is assumed to lead to cyst formation [18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Nephronophthisis (NPHP) is the most frequent genetic cause of end-stage kidney disease in children and young adults. Inv mice are a model for human nephronophthisis type 2 (NPHP2) and characterized by multiple renal cysts and situs inversus. Renal epithelial cells in inv cystic kidneys show increased cell proliferation. We studied the ERK pathway to understand the mechanisms that induce cell proliferation and renal cyst progression in inv kidneys. We studied the effects of ERK suppression by administering PD184352, an oral mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor on renal cyst expansion, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) activity, bromo-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and expression of cell-cycle regulators in invDeltaC kidneys. Phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) level increased along with renal cyst enlargement. Cell-cycle regulators showed a high level of expression in invDeltaC kidneys. PD184352 successfully decreased p-ERK level and inhibited renal cyst enlargement. The inhibitor also decreased expression of cell-cycle regulators and BrdU incorporation in renal epithelial cells. The present results showed that ERK regulated renal cell proliferation and cyst expansion in inv mutants.
    Full-text · Article · May 2009 · Acta histochemica et cytochemica official journal of the Japan Society of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry
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    • "Our present findings that ADPKD, which is characterized by increased RTE cell growth, may in fact be a disease which results from diminished p21 expression in affected tissues are consistent with recent data showing that polycystin-1 induces p21 [9] and causes resistance to apoptosis [23]. Our data is supported by another study demonstrating that immortalized proliferation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts from PKD1(-/-) mice occurs without the induction of p53 and (at late passage) p21 [28], as well a study showing that the CDK inhibitor roscovitine arrests disease progression[10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common genetic disease with few treatment options other than renal replacement therapy. p21, a cyclin kinase inhibitor which has pleiotropic effects on the cell cycle, in many cases acts to suppress cell cycle progression and to prevent apoptosis. Because defects in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells occur in PKD, and in light of earlier reports that polycystin-1 upregulates p21 and that the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor roscovitine arrests progression in a mouse model, we asked whether (1) p21 deficiency might underlie ADPKD and (2) the mechanism of the salutary roscovitine effect on PKD involves p21. p21 levels in human and animal tissue samples as well as cell lines were examined by immunoblotting and/or immunohistochemisty. Apoptosis was assessed by PARP cleavage. p21 expression was attenuated in a renal tubular epithelial cell line by antisense methods, and proliferation in response to p21 attenuation and to roscovitine was assessed by the MTT assay. We show that p21 is decreased in human as well as a non-transgenic rat model of ADPKD. In addition, hepatocyte growth factor, which induces transition from a cystic to a tubular phenotype, increases p21 levels. Furthermore, attenuation of p21 results in augmentation of cell cycle transit in vitro. Thus, levels of p21 are inversely correlated with renal tubular epithelial cell proliferation. Roscovitine, which has been shown to arrest progression in a murine model of PKD, increases p21 levels and decreases renal tubular epithelial cell proliferation, with no affect on apoptosis. The novelty of our study is the demonstration in vivo in humans and rat models of a decrement of p21 in cystic kidneys as compared to non-cystic kidneys. Validation of a potential pathogenetic model of increased cyst formation due to enhanced epithelial proliferation and apoptosis mediated by p21 suggests a mechanism for the salutary effect of roscovitine in ADPKD and supports further investigation of p21 as a target for future therapy.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2007 · BMC Nephrology
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