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Vitamin K2 binds 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 4 and modulates estrogen metabolism

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Abstract

Vitamin K is a cofactor for gamma-glutamyl carboxylase, an enzyme that is important for blood coagulation. Recent studies have shown that vitamin K has other roles, in addition to post-transcriptional modification, such as bone metabolism and antitumoral actions; these findings have indicated that there might be unknown intracellular binding proteins that are specific for vitamin K. In this study, vitamin K-binding proteins were characterized by pull-down experiment using a chemically synthesized biotynylated vitamin K followed by mass spectrometric identification of the pull-downed components. The results indicated that 17beta hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase 4, apolipoportein E, and 40S ribosomal proteins S7 and S13 might be the candidates of the vitamin K-binding proteins. Subsequent experiments showed that vitamin K2 binds 17beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 4 and decreases the intracellular estradiol:estrone ratio, which resulted in the inhibition of the amount of estrogen receptor alpha-binding to its target DNA. These results suggest a possible novel role for vitamin K in modulating estrogen function.

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... At the same time, overexpression of HSD17B4 promotes the activity of PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK signaling pathways, which stimulate activation of transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and promote cell proliferation by enhancing proliferative genes expression (15,16). The research of Otsuka et al. demonstrated that VK2 can bind to HSD17B4 in HepG2 cells (17). Whether the mechanism that VK2 inhibits the proliferation of HCC cells induced by HSD17B4 and inhibits the growth of transplanted tumors promoted by HSD17B4 by binding to HSD17B4 is not clear. ...
... It has been reported that VK2 can bound to HSD17B4 in HepG2 cells (17). To further prove that VK2 can bind to HSD17B4 directly, we used anti-HSD17B4 antibody to precipitate HSD17B4 in the lysates of HepG2 cells and then detect VK2 content in the precipitate. ...
... Our previous studies demonstrated that the expression of HSD17B4 was increased in the tissue of HCC (16), and HSD17B4 can promote the proliferation of HCC cells (15). Otsuka et al. found that newly synthesized biotinylated VK2 could affect the activity of HSD17B4 (17). Under our experimental conditions, we also proved that VK2 binds to HSD17B4 to exert its inhibitory effect. ...
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Our previous studies have proved that 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 4 (HSD17B4) is a novel proliferation-promoting protein. The overexpression of HSD17B4 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell proliferation. Vitamin K2 (VK2), a fat-soluble vitamin, has the function of promoting coagulation and can inhibit the progression of liver cancer. A previous study demonstrated that VK2 could bind to HSD17B4 in HepG2 cells. However, the mechanism of VK2 in inhibiting HCC cell proliferation is not clear. In this study, we investigate whether VK2 can inhibit the proliferation of HCC cell induced by HSD17B4 and the possible mechanism. We detected the effect of VK2 on HSD17B4-induced HCC cell proliferation, and the activation of STAT3, AKT, and MEK/ERK signaling pathways. We measured the effect of HSD17B4 on the growth of transplanted tumor and the inhibitory effect of VK2. Our results indicated that VK2 directly binds to HSD17B4, but does not affect the expression of HSD17B4, to inhibit the proliferation of HCC cells by inhibiting the activation of Akt and MEK/ERK signaling pathways, leading to decreased STAT3 activation. VK2 also inhibited the growth of HSD17B4-induced transplanted tumors. These findings provide a theoretical and experimental basis for possible future prevention and treatment of HCC using VK2.
... Higher bone turnover is a sign of osteopenia and further osteoporosis and higher risk of bone breakings [37,38]. Calcium (Ca 2+ ) and phosphate (Pi) metabolism, therefore, are very important to maintain resilience of bone [39]. Therefore, we measure the Ca 2+ and Pi plasmatic, urinary, balance and bone in our experimental groups. ...
... VK has also been shown to affect bone resorption as well [36,37]. Usually VK effects is associated to lower bone resorption and lower presence of markers such as urinary hydroxyproline, deoxypyridinoline, or serum C/N-terminals collagen fragments [36,38,39]. ...
... These effects seemed to act on recruitment of new osteoblast and more likely through potentiation of effects of either PTH or 1α(OH) 2 vitamin D 3 . Another hypothesis is that VK might be potentiate the effect of estrogen receptor as reported before by Otsuka and co-workers (2005) [39]. Moreover, we observed that VK treatment act mostly into bone organic matrix instead the mineralization. ...
Article
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Background/Aims: Osteoporosis is a bone metabolic disease that affects mostly post-menopausal women. There has been shown that vitamin K (VK) supplementation during menopause may decrease bone loss as well as risk of bone breaking. Aiming to clarify the beneficial role of VK in bone metabolism during menopause, we investigated mineral metabolism and bone ultrastructure of ovariectomized (OVX) mice. Methods: To determine the effects chronic use of VK in bone structure and mineral metabolism in OVX mice, we used several methods, such as DXA, µCTScan, and SEM as well as biomolecular techniques, such as ELISA and qRT-PCR. In addition, complete analysis of serum hormonal and other molecules associated to bone and lipid metabolism were evaluated overview the effects of VK in menopause murine model. Results: VK treatment significantly affects Pi metabolism independently of OVX, changing Pi plasma, urinary output, balance, and Pi bone mass. Interestingly, VK also increased VLDL in mice independently of castration. In addition, VK increased compact bone mass in OVX mice when we evaluated it by DXA, histomorphometry, µCTScanning. VK increased bone formation markers, osteocalcin, HYP- osteocalcin, and AP whereas it decreased bone resorption markers, such as urinary DPD/creatinine ratio and plasmatic TRAP. Surprisingly, SEM images revealed that VK treatment led to amelioration of microfractures observed in OVX untreated controls. In addition, SHAM operated VK treated mice exhibited higher number of migrating osteoblasts and in situ secretion of AP. OVX led to decreased to in situ secretion of AP that was restored by VK treatment. Moreover, VK treatment increased mRNA expression of bone Calbindin 28KDa independently of OVX. Conclusion: VK treatment in OVX mice exhibited beneficial effects on bone ultrastructure, mostly by altering osteoblastic function and secretion of organic bone matrix. Therefore, VK could be useful to treat osteopenic/osteoporotic patients.
... Higher bone turnover is a sign of osteopenia and further osteoporosis and higher risk of bone breakings [37,38]. Calcium (Ca 2+ ) and phosphate (Pi) metabolism, therefore, are very important to maintain resilience of bone [39]. Therefore, we measure the Ca 2+ and Pi plasmatic, urinary, balance and bone in our experimental groups. ...
... VK has also been shown to affect bone resorption as well [36,37]. Usually VK effects is associated to lower bone resorption and lower presence of markers such as urinary hydroxyproline, deoxypyridinoline, or serum C/N-terminals collagen fragments [36,38,39]. This results into higher rates of bone turnover that may cause a bone loss when accompanied to other risk factors, such as low calcium intake and ovary failure [42]. ...
... These effects seemed to act on recruitment of new osteoblast and more likely through potentiation of effects of either PTH or 1α(OH) 2 vitamin D 3 . Another hypothesis is that VK might be potentiate the effect of estrogen receptor as reported before by Otsuka and co-workers (2005) [39]. Moreover, we observed that VK treatment act mostly into bone organic matrix instead the mineralization. ...
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Background/Aims: Osteoporosis is a bone metabolic disease that affects mostly post-menopausal women. There has been shown that vitamin K (VK) supplementation during menopause may decrease bone loss as well as risk of bone breaking. Aiming to clarify the beneficial role of VK in bone metabolism during menopause, we investigated mineral metabolism and bone ultrastructure of ovariectomized (OVX) mice. Methods: To determine the effects chronic use of VK in bone structure and mineral metabolism in OVX mice, we used several methods, such as DXA, µCTScan, and SEM as well as biomolecular techniques, such as ELISA and qRT-PCR. In addition, complete analysis of serum hormonal and other molecules associated to bone and lipid metabolism were evaluated overview the effects of Batista et al.: Missing VK in menopause murine model. Results: VK treatment significantly affects Pi metabolism independently of OVX, changing Pi plasma, urinary output, balance, and Pi bone mass. Interestingly, VK also increased VLDL in mice independently of castration. In addition, VK increased compact bone mass in OVX mice when we evaluated it by DXA, histomorphometry, µCTScanning. VK increased bone formation markers, osteocalcin, HYP-osteocalcin, and AP whereas it decreased bone resorption markers, such as urinary DPD/creatinine ratio and plasmatic TRAP. Surprisingly, SEM images revealed that VK treatment led to amelioration of microfractures observed in OVX untreated controls. In addition, SHAM operated VK treated mice exhibited higher number of migrating osteoblasts and in situ secretion of AP. OVX led to decreased to in situ secretion of AP that was restored by VK treatment. Moreover, VK treatment increased mRNA expression of bone Calbindin 28KDa independently of OVX. Conclusion: VK treatment in OVX mice exhibited beneficial effects on bone ultrastructure, mostly by altering osteoblastic function and secretion of organic bone matrix. Therefore, VK could be useful to treat osteopenic/osteoporotic patients.
... In another study, 17bhydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 4 (HSD17B4) was identified as a VK2-binding protein by affinity purification using biotinylated VK2. HSD17B4 catalyzes the conversion of estradiol (E2) to estrone (E1), and VK2 was found to decrease the E2:E1 ratio in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2 (Otsuka et al., 2005). ...
... homeostasis not only through GGCX but also through SXR. Third, HSD17B4, an enzyme converting E2 to E1, was also identified as a VK2-binding protein (Otsuka et al., 2005), although the role of HSD17B4, if any, in VK2 biology is not well understood. Fourth, this study identified Bak as a molecular target of VK2-induced apoptosis. ...
Article
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Vitamin K2 (VK2, menaquinone) is known to have anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo. Although its effect is thought to be mediated, at least in part, by the induction of apoptosis, the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. Here, we identified Bcl-2 antagonist killer 1 (Bak) as a molecular target of VK2-induced apoptosis. VK2 directly interacts with Bak and induces mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. Although Bak and Bax, another member of the Bcl-2 family, are generally thought to be functionally redundant, only Bak is necessary and sufficient for VK2-induced cytochrome c release and cell death. Moreover, VK2-2,3 epoxide, an intracellular metabolite of VK2, was shown to covalently bind to the cysteine-166 residue of Bak. Several lines of evidence suggested that the covalent attachment of VK2 is critical for apoptosis induction. Thus, this study reveals a specific role for Bak in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. This study also provides insight into the anticancer effects of VK2 and suggests that Bak may be a potential target of cancer therapy.
... This function is reported only in MK-4. Association of vitamin K with 17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 4 (17β-HSD4) can be different mode of vitamin K action [18], although mechanism of binding and regulation of enzymatic activity is unknown. Only MK-4 was used in this study. ...
... In 2005, another interactor of vitamin K2 was discovered. Otsuka et al. showed that vitamin K2 binds 17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 4 (17β-HSD4) by mass spectrometric analysis with a pull-down assay using biotinylated MK-4 [18] (Figure 2). It is known that 17β-HSD4 is an enzyme converting estradiol (E2) to estrone (E1). ...
Article
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Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin that was originally found as an essential factor for blood coagulation. With the discovery of its role as a co-factor for γ-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX), its function for blood coagulation was understood as the activation of several blood coagulation factors by their γ-carboxylation. Over the last two decades, other modes of vitamin K actions have been discovered, such as the regulation of transcription by activating the steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR), physical association to 17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 4 (17β-HSD4), covalent modification of Bcl-2 antagonist killer 1 (Bak), and the modulation of protein kinase A (PKA) activity. In addition, several epidemiological studies have revealed that vitamin K status is associated with some aging-related diseases including osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and sarcopenia. Clinical studies on single nucleotide polymorphisms of GGCX suggested an association between higher GGCX activity and bone protective effect, while recent findings using conditional knockout mice implied that a contribution in protective effect for bone loss by GGCX in osteoblastic lineage was unclear. GGCX in other cell lineages or in other tissues might play a protective role for osteoporosis. Meanwhile, animal experiments by our groups among others revealed that SXR, a putative receptor for vitamin K, could be important in the bone metabolism. In terms of the cartilage protective effect of vitamin K, both GGCX- and SXR-dependent mechanisms have been suggested. In clinical studies on osteoarthritis, the γ-carboxylation of matrix Gla protein (MGP) and gla-rich protein (GRP) may have a protective role for the disease. It is also suggested that SXR signaling has protective role for cartilage by inducing family with sequence similarity 20a (Fam20a) expression in chondrocytes. In the case of sarcopenia, a high vitamin K status in plasma was associated with muscle strength, large muscle mass, and high physical performance in some observational studies. However, the basic studies explaining the effects of vitamin K on muscular tissue are limited. Further research on vitamin K will clarify new biological mechanisms which contribute to human longevity and health through the prevention and treatment of aging-related musculoskeletal disorders.
... In vitro studies show that PK is mainly distributed at microsomial level, where γ-carboxylation occurs, while MKS are mainly present in mitochondria where redox reactions of the electron transport chain take place (Reedstrom et al., 1995;Georgellis, Known, & Lin, 2001). An additional biological effect of MKS is that to bind the enzyme 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 4, thereby modulating estrogen metabolism ( Otsuka et al., 2005). These observations indicates that, unlike PK, MKS, in addition to the γ-carboxylation, may be also endowed with many "γ-carboxylation independent" functions which which may also account for the beneficial effects of MSK on health K and bone tissue (Kaneki, Hosoi, Ouchi, & Orimo, 2006). ...
Article
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Vitamin K is an essential fat soluble vitamin involved in the regulation of normal coagulation. However, growing evidence highlights that this molecule appears to be also implicated in the regulation of other important biological functions such as bone mineralization, calcium homeostasis, apoptosis, cell growth and signal transduction. In particular, many studies have focused their attention on the protective effects of vitamin K on bone tissue in the outlook of its use in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in post-menopausal women. The objective of the present paper is to review data of the literature regarding the metabolic effects of Vitamin K in bone tissue and its clinical role in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
... In bacteria, menaquinones play a critical role in electron transfer in mitochondria and redox signaling, as does ubiquinone [54]. Moreover, a recent study has demonstrated that menaquinone-4 binds to 17␤-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-4 and modulates estrogen metabolism [55]. These findings suggest that menaquinones, but not phylloquinone, may have an additional role, other than ␥-carboxylation, and that ␥-carboxylation-independent mechanisms might contribute to the salutary effects of a relatively high dose of menaquinone-4. ...
Article
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Vitamin K is a nutrient that was originally identified as an essential factor for blood coagulation. Recently, vitamin K has emerged as a potential protector against osteoporosis, atherosclerosis, and hepatocarcinoma. Accumulated evidence indicates that subclinical non-hemostatic vitamin K deficiency in extrahepatic tissues, particularly in bone and possibly in vasculature, exists widely in the otherwise healthy adult population. Vitamins K1 and K2 have been shown to exert protective effects against osteoporosis, although it is important that the beneficial effects will be further confirmed by large-scale, randomized, clinical trials. Increasing evidence implicates a role for vitamin K in calcification of arteries and atherogenesis. Moreover, the therapeutic potential of vitamin K2 as an antihepatoma drug has recently been highlighted. Most of the new biological functions of vitamin K in bone, vasculature, and hepatoma cells are considered attributable to promotion of gamma-carboxylation of glutamic acid residues in vitamin K-dependent proteins, which is shared by vitamins K1 and K2. In contrast, vitamin K2-specific, gamma-carboxylation-unrelated functions have also been demonstrated. Thus, biological differences between vitamins K1 and K2 and potential involvement of gamma-carboxylation-independent actions in the new roles of vitamin K remain open issues. Molecular bases of coagulation-unrelated pleiotropic actions of vitamin K and its implications in human health deserve further investigations.
... For example, vitamin K 3 (12, Figure 1) modifies aldose reductase presumably through covalent bond formation with Cys298 (68). Following exposure of HepG2 cells to biotinylated vitamin K 2 (11, Figure 1), the quinone moiety of both the biotinylated and free vitamin K bound to 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 4, apolipoprotein E, and 40S ribosomal proteins S7 and A14 (69). Both 1,4-BQ and 1,4-NQ form covalent bonds with multiple cellular proteins such as galectin-1, protein disulfide isomerase, and 60-kDa heat-shock protein upon incubation with human bronchial epithelial cells (70). ...
Article
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Quinones are a group of highly reactive organic chemical species that interact with biological systems to promote inflammatory, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer actions and to induce toxicities. This review describes the chemistry, biochemistry, and cellular effects of 1,2- and 1,4-naphthoquinones and their derivatives. The naphthoquinones are of particular interest because of their prevalence as natural products and as environmental chemicals, present in the atmosphere as products of fuel and tobacco combustion. 1,2- and 1,4-naphthoquinones are also toxic metabolites of naphthalene, the major polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon present in ambient air. Quinones exert their actions through two reactions: as prooxidants, reducing oxygen to reactive oxygen species; and as electrophiles, forming covalent bonds with tissue nucleophiles. The targets for these reactions include regulatory proteins such as protein tyrosine phosphatases; Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1, the regulatory protein for NF-E2-related factor 2; and the glycolysis enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Through their actions on regulatory proteins, quinones affect various cell signaling pathways that promote and protect against inflammatory responses and cell damage. These actions vary with the specific quinone and its concentration. Effects of exposure to naphthoquinones as environmental chemicals can vary with the physical state, i.e., whether the quinone is particle bound or is in the vapor state. The exacerbation of pulmonary diseases by air pollutants can, in part, be attributed to quinone action.
... Functions of vitamin K can be explained by facilitating γcarboxylation of some proteins, including coagulation factors, osteocalcin (OC), and matrix Gla protein (MGP), which are catalyzed by γ-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX) (5). To date, other modes of vitamin K actions have been discovered, such as regulation of transcription by activating steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR) (6), physical association with 17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 4 (17β-HSD4) (7), and covalent modification of Bcl-2 antagonist killer 1 (Bak) (8). ...
Article
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Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin shown to be associated with several age-related diseases. Although a small number of epidemiological studies described the relationship between vitamin K status and cognitive impairment, vitamin K status was estimated by relatively special methods in previous reports. Here, we demonstrated the association of the concentration of undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) in serum, which is a biomarker for vitamin K insufficiency, with cognitive function in a cross-sectional study. A total of 800 community-dwelling older adults (mean age = 75.9) were invited to geriatric health examination, including a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and a blood test. By using binary logistic regression analysis, the risk of cognitive impairment equivalent or below the mild cognitive impairment level for each tertile of ucOC was examined, with the lowest tertile as the reference. We found a significant association of impaired cognitive function and concentration of ucOC in the highest tertile of ucOC, with the odds ratio of 1.65 (95% CI, 1.06 to 2.59, P = 0.028). When the analysis was repeated with each domain of MMSE, the highest tertile of ucOC was associated with impaired orientation, calculation, and language. As far as we know, this is the first report on the significant association of single ucOC measurement and cognitive impairment. Our analysis also suggests that vitamin K insufficiency could be associated with selected categories of cognitive function. Since the single measurement of ucOC in serum is a simple and widely available method for vitamin K evaluation, it could be useful as a biomarker of neurodegenerative diseases affecting the cognitive functions.
... Although consistent in direction with the present findings, in taking into account gender and age we report a novel gender and age specific association, warranting further validation of this gender and age specific effect in intervention studies. One mechanism for this female specific effect may be tied to the association of vitamin and minerals to estrogen processing [42][43][44][45][46] and the subsequent link to estrogen-mediated HDL cholesterol production via ApoA1 [47,48]. This effect is not observed in older women (>65) likely due to postmenopausal drop in estrogen or the high prevalence of hormone replacement therapies. ...
Article
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Dyslipidemia is a precursor to a myriad of cardiovascular diseases in the modern world. Age, gender, and diet are known modifiers of lipid levels, however they are not frequently investigated in subset analyses. Food and nutrient intakes from National Health and Nutrition Examination Study 2001–2013 were used to assess the correlation between lipid levels (high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and total cholesterol (TC):HDL cholesterol ratio) and nutritional intake using linear regression. Associations were initially stratified by gender and significant gender correlations were further stratified by age. Analyses were performed at both the dietary pattern and nutrient level. Dietary pattern and fat intake correlations agreed with the literature in direction and did not demonstrate gender or age effects; however, we observed gender and age interactions among other dietary patterns and individual nutrients. These effects were independent of ethnicity, caloric intake, socioeconomic status, and physical activity. Elevated HDL cholesterol levels correlated with increasing vitamin and mineral intake in females of child bearing age but not males or older females (≥65 years). Moreover, increases in magnesium and retinol intake correlated with HDL cholesterol improvement only in females (all age groups) and males (35–64), respectively. Finally, a large amount of gender-specific variation was associated with TG levels. Females demonstrated positive associations with sugar and carbohydrate while males show inverse associations with polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake. The female-specific association increased with the ratio of carbohydrate: saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake, suggesting that gender specific dietary habits may underlie the observed TG-nutrient correlations. Our study provides evidence that a subset of previously established nutrient-lipid associations may be gender or age-specific. Such discoveries provide potential new avenues for further research into personalized nutritional approaches to treat dyslipidemia.
... Thus, Hsd17b4 is critical for peroxisomal generation of DHA and EPA (Zhu et al., 2019). In addition, it is known that Hsd17b4 also binds to Vitamin K2 and Chromeceptin, a synthetic molecule impairing the viability and growth of IGF2-overexpressing hepatocellular carcinoma cells and is involved in estrogen metabolism and Chromeceptin-mediated signaling in IGF2-overexpressing hepatocellular cells (Choi et al., 2006;Otsuka et al., 2005). Localization of Hsd17b4 to peroxisomes triggered by translocation of PS during apoptosis might elicit analogous effects on DHA, EPA, and estrogen metabolism and Chromeceptin-mediated signaling. ...
Article
Phosphatidylserine (PS), a negatively charged phospholipid exclusively located in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane, is involved in various cellular processes such as blood coagulation, myoblast fusion, mammalian fertilization, and clearance of apoptotic cells. Proteins that specifically interact with PS must be identified to comprehensively understand the cellular processes involving PS. However, only a limited number of proteins are known to associate with PS. To identify PS-associating proteins, we performed a pulldown assay using streptavidin-coated magnetic beads on which biotin-linked PS was immobilized. Using this approach, we identified Hsd17b4, a peroxisomal protein, as a PS-associating protein. Hsd17b4 strongly associated with PS, but not with phosphatidylcholine or sphingomyelin, and the Scp-2-like domain of Hsd17b4 was responsible for this association. The association was disrupted by PS in liposomes, but not by free PS or the components of PS. In addition, translocation of PS to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane enriched Hsd17b4 in peroxisomes. Collectively, this study suggests an unexpected role of PS as a regulator of the subcellular localization of Hsd17b4.
... Το γεγονός ότι η βΚ2 αλληλεπιδρά με την 17β-υδροξυστεροειδική αφυδρογονάση 4 (17β-HSD4), η οποία αποτελεί ένζυμο που συμμετέχει στην μετατροπή της οιστραδιόλης σε οιστρόνη μέσω του μονοπατιού σηματοδότησης των οιστογόνων, ίσως μπορεί εν μέρει να εξηγήσει τα ευεργετικά αποτελέσματα της δράσης του ΜΚ-4 στην μυοσκελετική ομοιόσταση [14,32]. Οι Karasawa και συν. ...
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Vitamin K (VK) is a fat-soluble multifunctional vitamin that was originally studied in blood coagulation. However, current studies elucidate its pivotal role in the maintenance of bone strength, and its positive impact on bone metabolism. VK exerts its anabolicneffects on bone turnover by promoting osteoblast differentiation, by upregulating transcription of specific genes in osteoblasts, and by activating the bone-linked VK dependent proteins that are involved in the mineralization of extracellular bone matrix. Additionally, in vitro studies have elucidated the effects of VK on the differentiation of other mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts. Similarly, in vivo experimental studies have demonstrated that the Steroid and Xenobiotic Receptor (SXR), a potential receptor for vitamin K, is important in bone homeostasis and metabolism. Several epidemiological surveys revealed that VK status is associated with age-related musculoskeletal diseases such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and sarcopenia while the combination of VK and PTH increased the differentiation of osteoblasts, creating synergistic effects on bone formation of bone defects. Furthermore, low VK concentration in the serum was correlated with inflammation and low areal bone mineral density (aBMD) contributing to an increased risk of incident fractures. The purpose of this chapter was to highlight the VK-dependent biological pathways which are associated with the prevention and treatment of bone metabolism disorders
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Pterocaryquinone, a novel 1,4-naphthoquinone derivative, was isolated from Pterocarya tonkinesis and its structure was elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Pterocaryquinone is a new dimeric 1,4-naphthoquinone derivative having a pentacyclic skeleton with two five-membered carbon rings, which provided a novel structural skeleton for 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives and showed apoptosis-inducing activity toward mouse cancer tsFT210 cells.
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Convergent evidence implicates the TERE1 protein in human bladder tumor progression and lipid metabolism. Previously, reduced TERE1 expression was found in invasive urologic cancers and inhibited cell growth upon re-expression. A role in lipid metabolism was suggested by TERE1 binding to APOE, a cholesterol carrier, and to TBL2, a candidate protein in triglyceride disorders. Natural TERE1 mutations associate with Schnyder's corneal dystrophy, characterized by lipid accumulation. TERE1 catalyzes menaquinone synthesis, known to affect cholesterol homeostasis. To explore this relationship, we altered TERE1 and TBL2 dosage via ectopic expression and interfering RNA and measured cholesterol by Amplex red. Protein interactions of wild-type and mutant TERE1 with GST-APOE were evaluated by binding assays and molecular modeling. We conducted a bladder tumor microarray TERE1 expression analysis and assayed tumorigenicity of J82 cells ectopically expressing TERE1. TERE1 expression was reduced in a third of invasive specimens. Ectopic TERE1 expression in J82 bladder cancer cells dramatically inhibited nude mouse tumorigenesis. TERE1 and TBL2 proteins inversely modulated cellular cholesterol in HEK293 and bladder cancer cells from 20% to 50%. TERE1 point mutations affected APOE interactions, and resulted in cholesterol levels that differed from wild type. Elevated tumor cell cholesterol is known to affect apoptosis and growth signaling; thus, loss of TERE1 in invasive bladder cancer may represent a defect in menaquinone-mediated cholesterol homeostasis that contributes to progression.
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The 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17beta-HSDs) are involved in the regulation of estrogens and androgens by catalyzing the reduction of 17-ketosteroids or the oxidation of 17beta hydroxysteroids. The enzyme activities associated with the different 17beta-HSD isoforms are widespread in human tissues, not only in classic steroidogenic tissues but also in a large series of peripheral intracrine tissues. Being involved at the end of steroidogenesis, the numerous members of 17beta-HSD family constitute interesting therapeutic targets for controlling the concentration of estrogens and androgens. Thus, inhibitors of reductive 17beta-HSD isoforms are attractive to block the formation of hydroxysteroids that stimulate estrogeno-sensitive pathologies (breast, ovarian, and endometrium cancers) and androgeno-sensitive pathologies (prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia, acne, and hirsutism). The inhibitors could be used to block the degradation of estradiol, an attractive strategy for treating osteoporosis and Alzheimer's disease. In addition to their classical use as anti-cancer agents and therapeutic agents, inhibitors of 17beta-HSDs are also useful tools to elucidate the role of these enzymes in particular biological systems. The present review article gives a description of novel inhibitors of 17beta-HSDs that were published in 2003-2006.
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It is generally accepted that the availability of vitamin K in vivo depends on its homologues, the biological activities of which would differ among organs. To test this hypothesis, we examined the uptake, metabolism, and utilization of menaquinone-4 (MK-4) and phylloquinone (PK) using 18O-labeled compounds in two cultured human cell lines (HepG2 and MG-63). Lipid extracts were prepared from the cells and media after 1, 3, and 6h of incubation. The detection of the vitamin K analogues (18O-, 16O-quinone, and epoxide forms) was carried out with LC-APCI-MS/MS as previously reported. The 18O of vitamin K was replaced with atmospheric 16O2 during the formation of vitamin K epoxide with a carboxylative catalytic reaction. As a result, a significant difference was observed between MK-4 and PK in the amounts taken up into the cells. The 18O-labeled MK-4 was rapidly and remarkably well absorbed into the cells and metabolized to the epoxide form via a hydroquinone form as compared to the 18O-labeled PK. The difference in uptake of MK-4 and PK was not affected by treatment with warfarin although the metabolism of both compounds was markedly inhibited. This methodology should be utilized to clarify some of the actions of vitamin K in target cells and facilitate the development of new vitamin K drugs.
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Undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) is a sensitive marker of vitamin K status, and triglyceride (TG) has been shown to be the main transporter of vitamin K. In the present study, we examined the difference between ucOC concentrations in postmenopausal women receiving hormone therapy (HT) with oral conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) and transdermal estradiol (TE2). We also examined the associations of ucOC concentration with estradiol concentration and TG. Ninety-two postmenopausal women were recruited for this study. Serum concentrations of ucOC, intact osteocalcin, estradiol, and TG were measured before and after 12 months of HT. Forty-six women received oral administration of 0.625 mg of CEE and 2.5 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate daily, and 46 women received transdermal administration of 50 mug of 17beta-estradiol twice weekly and 2.5 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate daily. The ucOC concentration in women during HT with oral CEE was significantly (P < 0.01) lower than that in women during HT with TE2. Serum estradiol concentrations during HT with CEE showed a significant inverse correlation with ucOC concentrations and the ratio of ucOC/OC during HT (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). In addition, the serum ucOC concentration in women with an increased percentage of change in TG was significantly (P < 0.01) lower than that in women with a decreased percentage of change in TG during HT with oral CEE. The effect of HT with TE2 on ucOC concentration in women is weaker than the effect of HT with oral CEE. Suppression of ucOC concentration in postmenopausal women during HT with oral CEE might be associated with the effect of vitamin K through increased TG induced by oral CEE.
Article
Vitamin K (K) is an essential factor for the posttranslational modification of blood coagulation factors as well as proteins in the bone matrix (Gla proteins). It is known that K is not only distributed in the liver and bones but also abundantly distributed in the brain, kidney, and gonadal tissues. However, the role of K in these tissues is not well clarified. In this study, we used DNA microarray and identified the genes whose expression was affected in the testis under the K-deficient (K-def) state. The expression of genes involved in the biosynthesis of cholesterol and steroid hormones was decreased in the K-def group. The mRNA levels of Cyp11a - a rate-limiting enzyme in testosterone synthesis - positively correlated with the menaquinone-4 (MK-4) concentration in the testis. Moreover, as compared to the control (Cont) and K-supplemented (K-sup) groups, the K-def group had decreased testosterone concentrations in the plasma and testis. These results suggested that K is involved in steroid production in the testis through the regulation of Cyp11a.
Article
We investigated changes in serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) concentrations, bone turnover markers and spine bone mineral density (BMD) in women who had undergone bilateral oophorectomy during the premenopausal period. The study population comprised 141 bilaterally oophorectomized and 32 premenopausal women for a cross-sectional study. The longitudinal study consisted of 21 bilaterally oophorectomized women. Serum ucOC concentration, serum concentrations of intact osteocalcin (OC) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) as bone formation markers, urine N-telopeptide (NTx) concentration as a bone resorption marker and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentration were measured. Serum concentration of ucOC in women at 1 month after bilateral oophorectomy was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that in premenopausal women and the high level was sustained after surgical menopause. On the other hand, serum OC concentration at 1 month after surgical menopause was not different from that in premenopausal women. In the longitudinal study, serum ucOC concentration at 1 month after surgical menopause was significantly (p<0.05) increased compared to that before bilateral oophorectomy, while serum OC concentrations before and at 1 month after surgical menopause were not significantly different. The results of this study showed that serum ucOC concentration rapidly increases in women after bilateral oophorectomy and that change in serum ucOC concentration after surgical menopause is different from change in serum OC concentration.
Article
Poor vitamin K nutrition has recently been linked to several chronic diseases associated with abnormal calcification, which affect many elderly. To understand the impact of vitamin K nutrition on healthy aging it is necessary to assess both the determinants and the adequacy of vitamin K nutritional status of the elderly. Overall, elderly persons consume more vitamin K than young adults. However, a subgroup of the elderly population does not meet the current recommended dietary intakes for this nutrient. The first meta-analysis evaluating the data on the role of vitamin K and bone health concluded that increased intakes of vitamin K are warranted to reduce bone loss and fracture risk among the elderly. Recent studies suggest that nondietary determinants of vitamin K status need to be factored into any discussion on the adequacy of nutritional status of the elderly. One promising area of research is the interrelationship between estrogen and vitamin K. Evidence is emerging to support recommendations to increase intakes of vitamin K among the elderly to reduce bone loss and fracture risk. Much more research is required, however, to identify nondietary determinants of vitamin K status, and their impact on the elderly.
Article
We investigated changes in serum concentration of undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC), which is a sensitive marker of vitamin K status, and association of ucOC concentration with estradiol concentration in pre-, peri- and early post-menopausal women. The study population consisted of 193 pre-, peri- and post-menopausal Japanese women aged 39-66 yr. Serum ucOC concentration was measured to assess vitamin K status; serum concentrations of intact osteocalcin (OC) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) were measured as bone formation markers; and urine concentration of N-telopeptide was measured as a bone resorption marker. Serum estradiol and estrone concentrations were measured by a highly sensitive radioimmunoassay. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the lumbar spine. Serum concentration of ucOC in peri-menopausal women was significantly (p=0.0005) higher than that in pre-menopausal women, while serum OC concentration in post-menopausal women for whom 1 yr had passed since menopause was significantly (p=0.0003, p=0.024, respectively) higher than the concentrations in pre-menopausal and peri-menopausal women. Serum ucOC concentration showed a significant negative correlation with estradiol concentration (r=-0.372, p<0.0001) and a significant positive correlation with serum FSH concentration (r=0.324, p<0.0001). Serum OC concentration was positively correlated with serum FSH concentration (r=0.317, p<0.001). The results showed that the change in ucOC concentration during the menopausal transition is different from that in OC concentration. In addition, serum ucOC concentration is closely associated not only with FSH concentration but also estradiol concentration.
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Novel omega-oxygenated vitamin K-2 analogues, which are candidates for metabolites of vitamin K-2 homologues, were efficiently synthesized and their apoptosis-inducing activity was evaluated. We revealed that some of those analogues were biologically active and the side-chain part played an important role in apoptosis-inducing activity. Our results can provide useful information to develop the structure-activity relationship of vitamin K-2 analogues for new drugs based on vitamin K. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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The 14-3-3 protein family plays a role in a wide variety of cell signaling processes including monoamine synthesis, exocytosis, and cell cycle regulation, but the structural requirements for the activity of this protein family are not known. We have previously shown that the 14-3-3 protein binds with and activates phosphorylated tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH, the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of neurotransmitter serotonin) and proposed that this activity might be mediated through the COOH-terminal acidic region of the 14-3-3 molecules. In this report we demonstrate, using a series of truncation mutants of the 14-3-3 eta isoform expressed in Escherichia coli, that the COOH-terminal region, especially restricted in amino acids 171-213, binds indeed with the phosphorylated TPH. This restricted region, which we termed 14-3-3 box I, is one of the structural regions whose sequence is highly conserved beyond species, allowing that the plant 14-3-3 isoform (GF14) could also activate rat brain TPH. The 14-3-3 box I is the first functional region whose activity has directly been defined in the 14-3-3 sequence and may represent a common structural element whereby 14-3-3 interacts with other target proteins such as Raf-1 kinase. The result is consistent with the recently published crystal structure of this protein family, which suggests the importance of the negatively charged groove-like structure in the ligand binding.
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V-1 is a 12-kDa protein consisting of three consecutive ANK repeats, which are believed to serve as the surface for protein-protein interactions. It is thought to have a role in neural development for its temporal profile of expression during murine cerebellar development, but its precise role remains unknown. Here we applied the proteomic approach to search for protein targets that interact with V-1. The V-1 cDNA attached with a tandem affinity purification tag was expressed in the cultured 293T cells, and the protein complex formed within the cells were captured and characterized by mass spectrometry. We detected two polypeptides specifically associated with V-1, which were identified as the alpha and beta subunits of the capping protein (CP, alternatively called CapZ or beta-actinin). CP regulates actin polymerization by capping the barbed end of the actin filament. The V-1.CP complex was detected not only in cultured cells transfected with the V-1 cDNA but also endogenously in cells as well as in murine cerebellar extracts. An analysis of the V-1/CP interaction by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy showed that V-1 formed a stable complex with the CP heterodimer with a dissociation constant of 1.2 x 10(-7) m and a molecular stoichiometry of approximately 1:1. In addition, V-1 inhibited the CP-regulated actin polymerization in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, our results suggest that V-1 is a novel component that regulates the dynamics of actin polymerization by interacting with CP and thereby participates in a variety of cellular processes such as actin-driven cell movements and motility during neuronal development.
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We have investigated the activity and expression of aromatase enzyme in nontumoral, cirrhotic, and malignant human liver tissues and cells using both chromatographic and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR analyses. After 24- and 72-h incubation of tissue minces or hepatic cell lines with either testosterone or androstenedione as androgen precursor, human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues and HepG2 hepatoma cells showed elevated aromatase activity, with estrogen formation rates being 20 and >95%, respectively, as opposed to nontumoral hepatic tissues and nonmalignant Chang liver (CL) cells, where no aromatase activity could be detected. Cirrhotic samples exhibited intermediate enzyme activity. Notably, exposure of HepG2 cells to the aromatase inhibitor Letrozole resulted in a striking decrease of estrogen formation, which became virtually absent at a Letrozole dose of 0.4 nM. RT-PCR analysis revealed markedly lower aromatase mRNA in both CL cells and nontumoral liver tissues, as compared with HepG2 cells and HCC samples. Cirrhotic specimens displayed variable transcript levels, in turn comparable with those observed in nontumoral or HCC tissues. Exon-specific RT-PCR showed prominent expression of exon I.3A-containing message and exon I.4-containing message in CL and HepG2 cells, as in nontumoral and HCC tissues, respectively. The present evidence implies that locally elevated estrogen formation in malignant human liver tissues and cells may have a role in the development and/or maintenance of human HCC, eventually leading to develop alternative strategies for treatment of HCC patients using antiaromatase agents.
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Vitamin K, an essential nutrient often associated with the clotting cascade, has been the focus of considerable research demonstrating an anticancer potential. Much of this research has focused on vitamin K3, although vitamins K2 and K1 have also been shown to have anticancer effects. Early studies of vitamin K3 employed an oxidative model to explain the anticancer effects seen in both in vitro and in vivo studies; however, this model does not adequately address the action of vitamins K1 and K2. Recent research has demonstrated the anticancer action of vitamin K may act at the level of tyrosine kinases and phosphatases, modulating various transcription factors such as Myc and Fos. Tyrosine kinases associated with cyclins have also been shown to be affected by vitamin K, which can lead to cell cycle arrest and cell death.
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Estrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) interact with estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and beta to activate or repress gene transcription. To understand how estrogens and SERMs exert tissue-specific effects, we performed microarray analysis to determine whether ERalpha or ERbeta regulate different target genes in response to estrogens and SERMs. We prepared human U2OS osteosarcoma cells that are stably transfected with a tetracycline-inducible vector to express ERalpha or ERbeta. Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and immunoprecipitation studies confirmed that U2OS-ERalpha cells synthesized only ERalpha and that U2OS-ERbeta cells expressed exclusively ERbeta. U2OS-ERalpha and U2OS-ERbeta cells were treated either with 17beta-estradiol (E2), raloxifene, and tamoxifen for 18 h. Labeled cRNAs were hybridized with U95Av2 GeneChips (Affymetrix). A total of 228, 190, and 236 genes were significantly activated or repressed at least 1.74-fold in U2OS-ERalpha and U2OS-ERbeta cells by E2, raloxifene, and tamoxifen, respectively. Most genes regulated in ERalpha cells in response to E2, raloxifene, and tamoxifen were distinct from those regulated in ERbeta cells. Only 38 of the 228 (17%) genes were regulated by E2 in both U2OS-ERalpha and U2OS-ERbeta cells. Raloxifene and tamoxifen regulated only 27% of the same genes in both the ERalpha and ERbeta cells. A subset of genes involved in bone-related activities regulated by E2, raloxifene, and tamoxifen were also distinct. Our results demonstrate that most genes regulated by ERalpha are distinct from those regulated by ERbeta in response to E2 and SERMs. These results indicate that estrogens and SERMs exert tissue-specific effects by regulating unique sets of targets genes through ERalpha and ERbeta
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Vitamin A (retinol) and vitamin D are lipid soluble vitamins that are precursors of the nuclear hormones all-trans retinoic acid (RA) and 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD) that bind with high affinity to their cognate nuclear receptors, referred to as retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and vitamin D receptor (VDR). Both types of nuclear receptors are structurally related and belong to the same subclass of the nuclear receptor superfamily, a large family of ligand-inducible transcription factors. Both RAR and VDR form heterodimers preferentially with the nuclear receptor for 9-cis RA, referred to as the retinoid X receptor (RXR), but functional RAR-VDR heterodimers have also been observed. Moreover, both types of nuclear receptors interact in a ligand-dependent fashion with members of the same class of co-activator, co-repressor and co-integrator proteins. These similar molecular mechanisms of action provide several possibilities for an interaction of RARs with VDR that are all based on allosteric protein-protein interactions. These interactions can result in either an additive or a transrepressive functional interference between RA and VD. The two remaining lipid soluble vitamins, vitamins E and K, are not known to interact with nuclear receptors, but their structure does not exclude this possibility. Moreover, for vitamin E modulatory effects on transcription factors, such as AP-1, have been described. This review will discuss briefly gene regulation by the four lipid soluble vitamins.
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17 beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17 beta-HSD) IV is coded by 2.9 kb mRNA translated to an 80 kDa protein which is N-terminally cleaved to a 32 kDa enzyme. The 17 beta-HSD IV is dedicated to steroid inactivation and reveals only 25% amino acid similarity with 17 beta-HSD I-III enzymes. Despite five Asn-Xaa-Ser/Thr (Xaa = unspecified amino acid) sites in the 80 kDa protein the enzyme is not glycosylated. The porcine 32 kDa 17 beta-HSD IV forms dimers of 75 kDa. The highest 17 beta-HSD IV mRNA expression and specific activities are found in liver and kidney followed by ovary and testes. In porcine gonads the immunofluorescence assigned the 17 beta-HSD IV to granulosa cells and to Leydig and Sertoli cells. As shown by the treatment with phorbol-myristate-acetate in vitamin D-differentiated monocytic leukemia THP1 cells, steroid synthesis and inactivation are regulated differentially by the protein kinase C pathway: an increase in aromatase is accompanied by a decrease in 17 beta-HSD IV mRNA levels.
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• • Under normal circumstances, the coagulation system is balanced in favour of anticoagulation. • • Thrombin is the key effector enzyme of the clotting cascade. • • Antagonists of vitamin K inhibit a vitamin-K-dependent post-translational modification of several coagulation proteins, which is required for these proteins to attain a phospholipid-binding conformation. • • Heparin stimulates the activity of antithrombin, a serine-protease inhibitor. • • Analysis of knock-out mice has shown the relative importance of the coagulation factors in vivo. • • Gene therapy may soon be a therapeutic option for inherited deficiencies of factors VIII and IX.
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The reason for the large male predominance in the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unknown, and sex hormones may contribute to this phenomenon. We examined possible associations of serum levels of testosterone, free testosterone, estradiol, sex hormone binding globulin, and testosterone:estradiol ratio (T:E2 ratio) with HCC development in a follow-up study of 46 Japanese male patients with liver cirrhosis predominantly of hepatitis C virus origin (76%). Serum samples were collected between December 1985 and December 1987, and the patients were completely followed until the end of 1995 for an average of 5.1 years. During the follow-up period, 20 patients (43%) developed HCC. Univariate analysis demonstrated that serum T:E2 ratio and testosterone were significant predictors of HCC; the hazard ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) in the middle and upper tertiles relative to the lower tertile were 2.0 (0.5-7.6) and 4.0 (1.1-14.6; P trend = 0.03) for T:E2 ratio and 0.8 (0.2-3.1) and 2.9 (1.0-8.5; P trend = 0.05) for testosterone. Adjustment for age, serum albumin, hepatitis virus markers, and other clinicobiological variables substantially increased the corresponding hazard ratios. In multivariate analysis, serum free testosterone appeared to be associated with increased risk, yet independent associations with estradiol and sex hormone binding globulin were not evident. These results indicate that elevated serum testosterone, together with decreased serum estrogens, may promote the development of HCC in cirrhosis.
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17beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17beta-HSD) are pivotal in controlling the biological potency of steroid hormones by catalyzing oxidation or reduction at position 17. Several 17beta-HSDs may as well metabolize further substrates including alcohols, bile acids, fatty acids and retinols. This review summarizes recent progress in the field of 17beta-HSD research provides an update of nomenclature.
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The K vitamins, a group of napthoquinones, are required for the carboxylation of a limited number of proteins including the bone matrix protein osteocalcin. Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) and vitamin K2 (menaquinones), differ regarding food source (green vegetables and fermented products, respectively), bioavailability and intermediate metabolism. Epidemiological studies provide evidence for an association between a low vitamin K intake and an enhanced osteoporotic fracture risk. Doses of vitamin K1 up to 15 times the current recommended dietary allowance have successfully been used to reduce the percentage of undercarboxylated osteocalcin in the circulation. Studies demonstrating clear beneficial effects on bone health, however, are still lacking. In contrast, therapy with very high pharmacological doses of the vitamin K2 menatetrenone has impressively been used to prevent further bone mineral loss and fracture risk in osteoporotic patients.
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One of the strategies of functional proteomics, research aiming to discover gene function at the protein level, is the comprehensive analysis of protein-protein interactions related to the functional linkage among proteins and analysis of functional cellular machinery to better understand the basis of cell functions. Here, we describe the direct nanoflow LC (DNLC) system, which is equipped with a fritless high-resolution electrospray interface column packed with 1-microm reversed-phase (RP) beads and a novel splitless nanoflow gradient elution system to operate the column. Using RP-DNLC at an extremely slow flow rate, <50 nL/min, combined with data-dependent collision-induced dissociation tandem MS (MS/MS) and computer-assisted retrieval of spectra, we identified approximately 100 protein components in a biological complex such as a premature mammalian ribosome pull-down from cultured cells when we used an epitope-tagged protein as bait. Because this analysis is most sensitive, requires approximately 0.2 microg of total protein, and is a fully automated 1-h process, we anticipated that it should be an excellent tool for analyzing a limited amount of functional multi-protein complexes in cells.
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The biological activity of steroid hormones is regulated at the pre-receptor level by several enzymes including 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17 beta -HSD). The latter are present in many microorganisms, invertebrates and vertebrates. Dysfunctions in human 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases result in disorders of biology of reproduction and neuronal diseases, the enzymes are also involved in the pathogenesis of various cancers. 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases reveal a remarkable multifunctionality being able to modulate concentrations not only of steroids but as well of fatty and bile acids. Current knowledge on genetics, biochemistry and medical implications is presented in this review.
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The two known forms of estrogen receptor (ER), alpha and beta, exhibit differences in structure, affinity for certain ligands, and tissue distribution, suggesting differential roles. It is of interest from several perspectives to determine whether the two receptors elicit similar or differing responses within the same cell type in the presence of the same ligand. To evaluate roles of ER, we have examined responses to estrogen in a rat embryonic fibroblast cell line model, normally naive to ER, engineered to stably express ERalpha or ERbeta. Rat1+ERalpha, Rat1+ERbeta, and precursor Rat1 cell lines were treated with estradiol-17beta (E(2); 1 nM) or an ethanol vehicle for 24 h. Total RNA was extracted, and cDNA generated and subjected to suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH), followed by differential screening using dot blot hybridization. In the presence of ERalpha, products were identified that represent classic responses to E(2), including markers for cell proliferation. In the presence of ERbeta, an alternate transcription profile was observed, including upregulation of pro-alpha-2(I) collagen. These data support a model in which ERalpha and ERbeta regulate unique subsets of downstream genes within a given cell type.
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common human malignancy. Its high mortality rate is mainly a result of high intrahepatic recurrence and portal venous invasion (PVI). We previously reported that the development of PVI is related to levels of des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP), a serum protein that increases at a notably higher rate in patients with HCC. Because DCP is produced by a vitamin K shortage, we examined the biological effects of extrinsic supplementation of vitamin K(2) in HCC cells in vitro and in vivo. Consequently, vitamin K(2) inhibits the growth and invasion of HCC cells through the activation of protein kinase A, which modulates the activities of several transcriptional factors and inhibits the small GTPase Rho, independent of suppression of DCP. In addition, administration of vitamin K(2) to nude mice inoculated with liver tumor cells reduced both tumor growth and body weight loss. In conclusion, similar to an acyclic retinoid--which was previously reported to prevent the recurrence of HCC--vitamin K(2), another lipid-soluble vitamin, may be a promising therapeutic means for the management of HCC.
Article
Previous findings indicate that vitamin K2 (menaquinone) may play a role in controlling cell growth. To determine whether vitamin K2 has preventive effects on the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in women with viral cirrhosis of the liver. Forty women diagnosed as having viral liver cirrhosis were admitted to a university hospital between 1996 and 1998 and were randomly assigned to the treatment or control group. The original goal of the trial was to assess the long-term effects of vitamin K2 on bone loss in women with viral liver cirrhosis. However, study participants also satisfied criteria required for examination of the effects of such treatment on the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The treatment group received 45 mg/d of vitamin K2 (n = 21). Participants in the treatment and control groups received symptomatic therapy to treat ascites, if necessary, and dietary advice. Cumulative proportion of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatocellular carcinoma was detected in 2 of the 21 women given vitamin K2 and 9 of the 19 women in the control group. The cumulative proportion of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma was smaller in the treatment group (log-rank test, P =.02). On univariate analysis, the risk ratio for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in the treatment group compared with the control group was 0.20 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.04-0.91; P =.04). On multivariate analysis with adjustment for age, alanine aminotransferase activity, serum albumin, total bilirubin, platelet count, alpha-fetoprotein, and history of treatment with interferon alfa, the risk ratio for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients given vitamin K2 was 0.13 (95% CI, 0.02-0.99; P =.05). There is a possible role for vitamin K2 in the prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma in women with viral cirrhosis.
Article
The biological actions of estrogens are mediated by estrogen binding to one of two specific estrogen receptors (ERs) ERalpha and ERbeta, which belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily, a family of ligand-regulated transcription factors. ERalpha and ERbeta are products of different genes and exhibit tissue- and cell-type specific expression. The characterization of mice lacking ERalpha, or ERbeta, or both has revealed that both receptor subtypes have overlapping but also unique roles in estrogen-dependent action in vivo. Additionally, ERalpha and ERbeta have different transcriptional activities in certain ligand, cell-type, and promoter contexts. Both receptors, however, are coexpressed in a number of tissues and form functional heterodimers. The biological roles of ERalpha /beta heterodimers in the presence of each respective homodimer are unknown. When coexpressed, ERbeta exhibits an inhibitory action on ERalpha -mediated gene expression and in many instances opposes the actions of ERalpha. A number of ERalpha and ERbeta isoforms have also been described, many of which alter estrogen-mediated gene expression. Uncovering the molecular mechanisms regulating the expression of both ERs, and how ERalpha and ERbeta directly or indirectly affect each other's function are paramount to understanding the cellular and biological events of estrogen-mediated gene regulation in normal and diseased tissues.
Rapid detection of octamer binding proteins with dmini-extractsT, prepared from a small number of cells Serum testosterone: estradiol ratio and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma among male cirrhotic patients
  • E Schreiber
  • P Matthias
  • M M Muller
  • W Schaffner
  • K Tanaka
Schreiber, E., Matthias, P., Muller, M.M., Schaffner, W., 1989. Rapid detection of octamer binding proteins with dmini-extractsT, prepared from a small number of cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 17 (15), 6419. Tanaka, K., Sakai, H., Hashizume, M., Hirohata, T., 2000. Serum testosterone: estradiol ratio and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma among male cirrhotic patients. Cancer Res. 60 (18), 5106 – 5110.
Rapid detection of octamer binding proteins with ‘mini-extracts’, prepared from a small number of cells
  • Schreiber