Osrin D, Vaidya A, Shrestha Y, Baniya RB, Manandhar DS, Adhikari RK et al.. Effects of antenatal multiple micronutrient supplementation on birthweight and gestational duration in Nepal: double-blind, randomised controlled trial (see comment). Lancet 365, 955-962

Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University, Kantipura, Central Region, Nepal
The Lancet (Impact Factor: 45.22). 03/2005; 365(9463):955-62. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)71084-9
Source: PubMed


Neonatal mortality is the biggest contributor to global mortality of children younger than 5 years, and low birthweight is a crucial underlying factor. We tested the hypotheses that antenatal multiple micronutrient supplementation would increase infant birthweight and gestational duration.
We did a double-blind, randomised controlled trial in Dhanusha district, Nepal. Women attending for antenatal care with singleton pregnancies at up to 20 weeks' gestation were invited to participate. Participants were randomly allocated either routine iron and folic acid supplements (control; n=600) or a multiple micronutrient supplement providing a recommended daily allowance of 15 vitamins and minerals (intervention; n=600). Supplementation began at a minimum of 12 weeks' gestation and continued until delivery. Primary outcome measures were birthweight and gestational duration. Analysis was by intention to treat. The study is registered as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, number ISRCTN88625934.
Birthweight was available for 523/600 infants in the control group and 529/600 in the intervention group. Mean birthweight was 2733 g (SD 422) in the control group and 2810 g (453) in the intervention group, representing a mean difference of 77 g (95% CI 24-130; p=0.004) and a relative fall in the proportion of low birthweight by 25%. No difference was recorded in the duration of gestation (0.2 weeks [-0.1 to 0.4]; p=0.12), infant length (0.3 cm [-0.1 to 0.6]; p=0.16), or head circumference (0.2 cm [-0.1 to 0.4]; p=0.18).
In a poor community in Nepal, consumption of a daily supplement containing a recommended daily allowance of 15 micronutrients in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy was associated with increased birthweight when compared with a standard iron and folic acid preparation. The effects on perinatal morbidity and mortality need further comparisons between studies. Published online March 3, 2005

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    • "Most rural Tibetan communities are remote, in high-altitude environments, with low food diversity that lack micronutrient variation in diet (Goldstein & Beall, 1990). Studies from high-altitude Himalayan communities in this region of the world have helped demonstrate that MNS in pregnancy improves foetal growth (Osrin et al., 2005) and helps reduce early neonatal mortality (Zeng et al., 2008). Evidence around the impact of iron supplementation in pregnancy is more elusive but suggests positive benefits on birthweight (Haider et al., 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to identify trends and change in micronutrient supplementation (MNS) knowledge across pregnancy and post-partum and to assess the impact of MNS knowledge (MNS-k) on practice in pregnancy in rural Tibet, an area with endemic micronutrient deficiency. A prospective cohort with repeated measures at early, late and after pregnancy in a rural area in the Tibetan Autonomous Region included women receiving care by community workers. Key messages about MNS-k and optimal MNS practice were communicated through health worker encounters with pregnant women. Outcomes included MNS consumption practice, knowledge and attitudes. The proportion of women in the highest MNS-k category increased by 35% from early to late pregnancy (37.5-50.7%, respectively; p < .005). MNS-k was associated with MNS consumption in a dose-response manner over pregnancy (trend X(2) p-value < .0001), with increasing knowledge associated with increased MNS consumption. By late pregnancy, 32.5% of women had never consumed an MNS in this pregnancy, and 51.5% had not consumed an MNS on the assessed day or the day before. Sustained knowledge of MNS improved in pregnancy and post-partum. Best practice around MNS consumption increased though remained sub-optimal.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Global Public Health
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    • "The study was part of a larger follow-up of children born after a randomized controlled trial in which pregnant women were allocated to multiple micronutrient or iron and folic acid supplements (Osrin et al., 2005). We attempted to find all the children from the trial at seven to nine years of age. "
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    ABSTRACT: The exposure of children to air pollution in low resource settings is believed to be high because of the common use of biomass fuels for cooking. We used microenvironment sampling to estimate the respirable fraction of air pollution (particles with median diameter less than 4 μm) to which 7–9 year old children in southern Nepal were exposed. Sampling was conducted for a total 2649 h in 55 households, 8 schools and 8 outdoor locations of rural Dhanusha. We conducted gravimetric and photometric sampling in a subsample of the children in our study in the locations in which they usually resided (bedroom/living room, kitchen, veranda, in school and outdoors), repeated three times over one year. Using time activity information, a 24-hour time weighted average was modeled for all the children in the study. Approximately two-thirds of homes used biomass fuels, with the remainder mostly using gas. The exposure of children to air pollution was very high. The 24-hour time weighted average over the whole year was 168 μg/m3. The non-kitchen related samples tended to show approximately double the concentration in winter than spring/autumn, and four times that of the monsoon season. There was no difference between the exposure of boys and girls. Air pollution in rural households was much higher than the World Health Organization and the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Nepal recommendations for particulate exposure.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Environment international
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    • "Multiple micronutrient supplementation had no significant effect on maternal anemia in the third trimester compared to iron-folate based on data from 4 RCTs (RR = 1.03; 95% CI: 0.87 – 1.22; random model) [22,25,28,35] (Additional File 4). There was a statistically significant 9% reduction in the risk of small for gestational age infants with multiple micronutrient supplements (RR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.86 – 0.96; fixed model) based on fourteen studies [19-24,27-34] (Additional File 5A). "
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    ABSTRACT: Given the widespread prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries, supplementation with multiple micronutrients rather than iron-folate alone, could be of potential benefit to the mother and the fetus. These benefits could relate to prevention of maternal complications and reduction in other adverse pregnancy outcomes such as small-for-gestational age (SGA) births, low birth weight, stillbirths, perinatal and neonatal mortality. This review evaluates the evidence of the impact of multiple micronutrient supplements during pregnancy, in comparison with standard iron-folate supplements, on specific maternal and pregnancy outcomes of relevance to the Lives Saved Tool (LiST). DATA SOURCES/REVIEW METHODS: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials was conducted. Search engines used were PubMed, the Cochrane Library, the WHO regional databases and hand search of bibliographies. A standardized data abstraction and Child Health Epidemiology Reference (CHERG) adaptation of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) technique were used for data abstraction and overall quality of evidence. Meta-analyses were performed to calculate summary estimates of utility to the LiST model for the specified outcome of incidence of SGA births. We also evaluated the potential impact of multiple micronutrients on neonatal mortality according to the proportion of deliveries occurring in facilities (using a threshold of 60% to indicate functionality of health systems for skilled births). We included 17 studies for detailed data abstraction. There was no significant benefit of multiple micronutrients as compared to iron folate on maternal anemia in third trimester [Relative risk (RR) = 1.03; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.87 - 1.22 (random model)]. Our analysis, however, showed a significant reduction in SGA by 9% [RR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.86 - 0.96 (fixed model)]. In the fixed model, the SGA outcome remained significant only in women with mean body mass index (BMI) ≥ 22 kg/m2. There was an increased risk of neonatal mortality in studies with majority of births at home [RR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.13-1.92]; such an effect was not evident where ≥ 60% of births occurred in facility settings [RR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.81-1.09]. Overall there was no increase in the risk of neonatal mortality [RR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.92 - 1.19 (fixed model)]. This review provides evidence of a significant benefit of MMN supplementation during pregnancy on reducing SGA births as compared to iron-folate, with no significant increase in the risk of neonatal mortality in populations where skilled birth care is available and majority of births take place in facilities. Given comparability of impacts on maternal anemia, the decision to replace iron-folate with multiple micronutrients during pregnancy may be taken in the context of available services in health systems and birth outcomes monitored.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · BMC Public Health
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