COX-2 Inhibitor, NS398, Enhances Fas-Mediated Apoptosis via Modulation of the PTEN–Akt Pathway in Human Gastric Carcinoma Cell Lines

ArticleinDNA and Cell Biology 24(3):141-7 · April 2005with12 Reads
Impact Factor: 2.06 · DOI: 10.1089/dna.2005.24.141 · Source: PubMed

    Abstract

    A variety of human cancer cells are resistant to Fas ligand and anti-Fas antibody induced apoptosis. Previously, we reported that human gastric carcinoma cell lines were resistant to the anti-Fas antibody, CH-11, without interferon-gamma pretreatment in vitro. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 is known to be expressed in many human malignancies, and is correlated with tumor progression and resistance to apoptosis. This study examined whether NS398, a COX-2 inhibitor, inhibited cell proliferation and increased Fas-mediated apoptosis in human gastric carcinoma cell lines. Treatment of NS398 inhibited cell proliferation in MKN-45, which expressed the highest level of COX-2 among seven human gastric carcinoma cell lines, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, in contrast to less prominent effects in KATO-III, which expresses no COX-2. Although the treatment of CH-11 induced apoptosis in both cells, the simultaneous treatment of NS398 and CH-11 remarkably induced apoptosis, as confirmed by Hoechst 33258 staining and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase- mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) method in MKN-45. Flow cytometric analysis also revealed the increased pre-G1 fraction by the simultaneous treatment. The treatment of NS398 induced upregulation of Bad and PTEN, and downregulation of phosphorylated Akt (Thr308). These findings suggest that COX-2 might inhibit Fas-mediated apoptosis in human gastric carcinoma cell lines, especially MKN-45, by modulating PTEN and Akt.