Dietary Wine Phenolics Catechin, Quercetin, and Resveratrol Efficiently Protect Hypercholesterolemic Hamsters against Aortic Fatty Streak Accumulation

Equipe d'Accueil 3762, Nutrition & Aliment, Université Montpellier 2, 34095 Montpellier, France.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (Impact Factor: 2.91). 04/2005; 53(6):2015-21. DOI: 10.1021/jf048177q
Source: PubMed


The effects of the phenolic compounds catechin (Cat), quercetin (Qer), and resveratrol (Res) present in red wine on early atherosclerosis were studied in hamsters. Hamsters (n = 32) were divided into 4 groups of 8 and fed an atherogenic diet for 12 weeks. They received by force-feeding 7.14 mL/(kg of body Cat, Qer, or Res in water [2.856 mg/(kg of body for Cat and 0.1428 mg/(kg of body wt.dday) for Qer and Res], mimicking a moderate consumption of alcohol-free red wine (equivalent to that supplied by the consumption of about two glasses of red wine per meal for a 70 kg human), or water as control. Plasma cholesterol concentration was lower in groups that consumed phenolics than in controls. The increase in plasma apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 concentration was mainly due to Cat (26%) and Qer (22%) and to a lesser extent, but nonsignificantly, Res (19%). Apo-B was not affected. Plasma antioxidant capacity was not improved, and there was no sparing effect on plasma vitamins A and E. Plasma iron and copper concentrations were not modified nor were liver super oxide dismutase and catalase activities. A sparing effect of Qer on liver glutathione peroxidase activity appeared, whereas Cat and Res exhibited a smaller effect. Aortic fatty streak area was significantly reduced in the groups receiving Cat (84%) or Qer (80%) or Res (76%) in comparison with the controls. These findings demonstrate that catechin, quercetin, and resveratrol at nutritional doses prevent the development of atherosclerosis through several indirect mechanisms.

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    • "Phytochemicals, especially phenolic compounds, exhibit great in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potential, and their beneficial effects are extensively reported in models involving oxidative stresses caused by hypercholesterolemic and atherogenic diets, for example (Auger et al., 2005; Décordé et al., 2008). These bioactive compounds are able to scavenge radical oxygen species (ROS) and consequently reduce oxidative cell damage (Spormann et al., 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Fruits are a rich source of a variety of biologically active compounds that can have complementary and overlapping mechanisms of action, including detoxification, enzyme modulation and antioxidant effects. Although the effects of tropical fruits have been examined individually, the interactive antioxidant capacity of the bioactive compounds in these formulations has not been sufficiently explored. For this reason, this study investigated the effect of two tropical fruit juices (FA and FB) on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in rats. Seven groups, with eight rats each, were fed a normal diet for 4weeks, and were force-fed daily either water (control), 100, 200, or 400mg of FA or FB per kg. The results showed that the liver superoxide dismutase and catalase activities (FA200), erythrocytes glutathione peroxidase (FB400) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (FB100, FA400, FB200, FB400) were efficiently reduced by fruit juices when compared with control; whereas HDL-c increased (FB400).
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    • "Interestingly, quercetin is more effective than others flavonoids in the prevention of atherosclerosis [145]. While quercetin has no beneficial effects on the plasma lipid profile [146] [147], it inhibits significantly the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation [146], the oxidized-LDL-induced cytotoxicity [148] and the aortic fatty streak formation [149]. "
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    • "1–5), suggesting that the effects of quercetin on macrophages might be operating in vivo and could explain at least some of the atheroprotective activities of this flavonoid. Our results are in line with previous reports showing atheroprotective effects of oral quercetin in various animal models (Hayek et al., 1997; Auger et al., 2005; Juz´wiak et al., 2005; Leckey et al., 2010; Loke et al., 2010; Kleemann et al., 2011) and further extend them by demonstrating a significant level of protection after intraperitoneal chronic administration. Furthermore, we demonstrated reduced inflammatory macrophage and T cell infiltrate in the atheromatous plaque (Fig. 6), which could have been a consequence of the antioxidant/anti-inflammatory activity of quercetin on macrophages (Figs. 4 and 5). "
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