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Fingolimod. Mitsubishi Pharma/Novartis

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Abstract

Mitsubishi Pharma Corp and Novartis AG are developing fingolimod, an orally active immunosuppressant affecting lymphocyte re-circulation, for the potential prevention of transplant rejection and the treatment of autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis. Fingolimodis a synthetic sphingosine analog that becomes phosphorylated in vivo and acts as a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor agonist.

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... However, relapses are common and represent a major feature of MS but when relapses occurs, disability is accumulated and clinical management could face a big gap among different patients with MS (1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12). In patients with MS, those that receive disease-modifying drugs (DMDs) but still experience high disease activity, require different pharmacotherapy strategies (13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18). Limitations to parenteral disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) such as interferon beta-1a, interferon beta-1b, and glatiramer acetate for the treatment of RRMS have been addressed by the approval of oral DMT-fingolimod (19). ...
... Unexpected faintness of both legs disturbing the ability to walk recommends MS relapse, but steady alteration in walking capability over a long period of time suggests MS progression (1,9). Regarding the pharmacotherapy for RRMS, oral Sphingosine 1-Phosphate (SP1) receptor modulator, fingolimod, was approved for prescription since 2010 (13,17). In year 1994, from the culture broth of the fungus Isaria sinclairii, the immunosuppressive natural product myriocin was isolated. ...
... Multiple sclerosis, the long-term aggressive demyelinating disease of the CNS, which could be verified by an extremely variable clinical course, is associated with the (27). In the year 1992, Yoshimoto Pharmaceuticals, manufactured an oral immunomodulator drug, FT720, fingolimod or gilenya (13). A previous study related to fingolimod pharmacotherapy trial for MS indicated a reduction in the rate of relapses by over half (18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)(28)(29)(30). ...
... Administration of fingolimod to animal with experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE), a model of MS, had resulted to prevent development of EAE features [15]. Effects of fingolimod on different cell population especially lymphocytes had been greatly reviewed and it has been documented that fingolimod can cause lymphopenia [16]. Fingolimod has also shown to prevent lymphocytic infiltration even in animal models of intracerebral hemorrhage [17]. ...
Article
Introduction: Fingolimod is the first oral drug approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of United States for treating patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Fingolimod acts by immunomodulation but there are still much remained about its different effects. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in hematocrit (Hct), hemoglobin (Hb), and red blood cells (RBC) of patients with MS under treatments with fingolimod. Methods: A total number of 66 MS patients were included to our study based on certain exclusion criteria and eligibility for fingolimod oral treatment. Hct, Hb, and RBC were measured for each patient before drug administrations. Patients were treated with Fingolimod. 5 mg daily and after three months of treatments, measurements of Hct, Hb, and RBC were performed. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 24. Results: Amounts of Hct, Hb, and RBC were significantly decreased in this patient cohort. Hematocrit was decreased in all patients. Hemoglobin levels were significantly decreased in the female cohorts. Such decreases for male patients were insignificant. Red blood cell counts were also significantly decreased in patients. Conclusion: Accumulating line of evidence had surveys on different side effects of fngolimod but here we indicated that fingolimod will also decrease amounts of Hct, Hb, and RBC which could result further problems in patients susceptible to other diseases.
... The importance of PP2A as a putative target in cancer therapeutics has led to identification of small molecule activators of PP2A phosphatase activity, including forksolin and fingolimod (FTY720) [30,31]. FTY720 is in Phase III clinical trials due to its efficacy as treatment for multiple sclerosis as well as its action as an immunomodulator in renal transplant [32][33][34][35][36][37]. In addition, several preclinical studies suggest it is efficacious for specific leukemias as well, including blast crisis chronic myelogenous leukemia, Philadelphia chromosome positive ALL, and c-kit positive cancers, as well as other models for multiple myeloma, bladder and breast cancer, glioma, and hepatocellular carcinoma [23,24,35,[38][39][40][41][42]. ...
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Activation of the Protein Kinase B (PKB), or AKT pathway has been shown to correlate with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) prognosis. B55α-Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) has been shown to dephosphorylate AKT at Thr-308 rendering it inactive. In fact, low expression of the PP2A regulatory subunit B55α was associated with activated phospho-AKT and correlated with inferior outcomes in AML. Despite this fact, no studies have specifically demonstrated a mechanism whereby B55α expression is regulated in AML. In this study, we demonstrate novel loss of function mutations in the PPP2R2A gene identified in leukemic blasts from three AML patients. These mutations eliminate B55α protein expression thereby allowing constitutive AKT activation. In addition, leukemic blasts with PPP2R2A gene mutation were more sensitive to treatment with the AKT inhibitor MK2206, but less responsive to the PP2A activator FTY720. Using leukemia cell lines, we further demonstrate that B55α expression correlates with AKT Thr-308 phosphorylation and predicts responsiveness to AKT inhibition and PP2A activation. Together our data illustrate the importance of the B55α-PP2A-AKT pathway in leukemogenesis. Screening for disruptions in this pathway at initial AML diagnosis may predict response to targeted therapies against AKT and PP2A.
... 133 . FTY720 is a water-soluble, nontoxic PP2A activator with a high oral bioavailability, and has been used as an immunomodulator in Phase III trials for patients with multiple sclerosis 134,135 . Recently, the therapeutic effect of FTY720 was tested in CML, and FTY720 was shown to activate PP2A and suppress BCR/ABL in myeloid and lymphoid cell lines. ...
Article
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a disease characterized by the expansion of granulocytic cells. The BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib, the frontline treatment for Ph+ leukemias, can induce complete hematologic and cytogenetic response in most chronic phase CML patients. Despite the remarkable initial clinic effects, it is now recognized that imatinib will unlikely cure patients because a small cell population containing leukemic stem cells (LSCs) with self-renewal capacity is insensitive to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. In Chapter I, I briefly review the BCR-ABL kinase and its related signaling pathways. BCR-ABL kinase activates several signaling pathways including MAPK, STAT, and JNK/SAPK. BCR-ABL also mediates kinase-independent pathways through SRC family kinases. I will also discuss pathways involving β-catenin, hedgehog, FoxO and Alox5 are critical to the regulation of self-renewal and differentiation in LSC of CML. As detailed in Chapter II, I describe our work evaluating the effects of omacetaxine, a novel CML drug inducing cell apoptosis by inhibition of protein synthesis, on self-renewal and differentiation of LSCs and BCR-ABL-induced CML and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) in mice. We found that treatment with omacetaxine decreased the number of LSCs and prolonged the survival of mice with CML or B-ALL. In chapter III, I describe that Alox5 is an essential gene in the function of LSCs and CML development. We show evidence that Alox5 affects differentiation, cell division, and survival of long-term LSCs. Treatment of CML mice with a 5-LO inhibitor also impaired the function of LSCs similarly and prolonged survival. In chapter IV, I present evidence of our work showing a further dissection the Alox5 pathway by comparing the gene expression profiles of wild type and Alox5-/- LSCs. We show that Msr1 deletion causes acceleration of CML development. We also show that Msr1 affects CML development by regulating the PI3K-AKT pathway and β-catenin. Taken together, these results demonstrate that some pathways including Alox5 and Msr1 play an important role in regulating the self-renewal and differentiation of LSC. More efforts should be put into developing the novel strategies that may effectively target LSCs and thus cure CML.
... The phosphatase activity of PP2A is inhibited by the BCR/ABL-induced expression of the PP2A inhibitor SET (108). FTY720 is a water-soluble, nontoxic PP2A inhibitor with a high oral bioavailability, and has been used as an immunomodulator in Phase III trials for patients with multiple sclerosis (109,110). Recently, the therapeutic effect of FTY720 was tested in CML, and FTY720 was shown to activate PP2A and suppress BCR/ABL in myeloid and lymphoid cell lines. In human LSCs, PP2A activity was reduced by 90% in CML CD34 + cells compared to CD34 + cells from normal bone marrow donor. ...
Article
Full-text available
Inhibition of BCR-ABL with kinase inhibitors in the treatment of Philadelphia-positive (Ph(+)) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is highly effective in controlling but not curing the disease. This is largely due to the inability of these kinase inhibitors to kill leukemia stem cells (LSCs) responsible for disease relapse. This stem cell resistance is not associated with the BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations resistant to kinase inhibitors. Development of curative therapies for CML requires the identification of crucial molecular pathways responsible for the survival and self-renewal of LSCs. In this review, we will discuss our current understanding of these crucial molecular pathways in LSCs and the available therapeutic strategies for targeting these stem cells in CML.
... The potential role that PP2A may play in B-CLL was also investigated in a recent report by Liu et al. [69], in which the possibility of inducing PP2A activation as a possible therapeutic strategy for CLL was investigated in detail. The PP2A activator tested, FTY720 (Fingolimod; Novartis), is a known immunomodulator which is currently being evaluated in phase III clinical trials in patients with either multiple sclerosis or undergoing renal transplantation [70][71][72][73]. FTY720 is a synthetic water soluble myriocin analog that is structurally similar to sphingosine. ...
Article
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Protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A) is one of the major cellular serine-threonine phosphatases and is involved in the regulation of cell homeostasis through the negative regulation of signaling pathways initiated by protein kinases. As several cancers are characterized by the aberrant activity of oncogenic kinases, it was not surprising that a phosphatase like PP2A has progressively been considered as a potential tumor suppressor. Indeed, multiple solid tumors (e.g. melanomas, colorectal carcinomas, lung and breast cancers) present with genetic and/or functional inactivation of different PP2A subunits and, therefore, loss of PP2A phosphatase activity towards certain substrates. Likewise, impaired PP2A phosphatase activity has been linked to B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Philadelphia-chromosome positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia and blast crisis chronic myelogenous leukemia. Remarkably, drugs such as forskolin, 1,9-dideoxy-forskolin and FTY720 which lead to PP2A activation effectively antagonize leukemogenesis in both in vitro and in vivo models of these cancers. Thus, PP2A is now in the spotlight as a highly promising drugable target for the development of a new series of anticancer agents potentially capable of overcoming drug-resistance induced in patients by continuous exposure to kinase inhibitor monotherapy. Herein, we review current knowledge of PP2A biology and function with particular emphasis on its tumor suppressor activity and possible therapeutic implications in cancer.
Chapter
Nick Pullen graduated in biochemistry and chemistry and completed his PhD in G protein-coupled receptor signaling from the University of Southampton. From there he moved to the Novartis-funded Friedrich Miescher Institute in Basel, to pursue postdoctoral studies on signaling mechanisms involved in diabetes and oncology. He joined the Pfizer Gastrointestinal therapeutic area in 1999.
Chapter
The identification of sphingosine-1-phosphate-1 as the molecular target of fingolimod (Gilenya) has prompted intense interest in the identification of other novel agonists of this G-protein-coupled receptor, reports of which are reviewed. Aiming to improve upon profile of fingolimod, emphasis was placed on identification of shorter-acting compounds as well as those that eliminated activity on the S1P3 receptor which, until recently, was believed to be solely responsible for the cardiovascular side effects observed with fingolimod in the clinic. Early efforts in the field focused on prodrugs that, like fingolimod, require bioactivation via phosphate formation to fully engage the S1P receptors. Recently, efforts have shifted toward stable phosphate mimics, such as amino acids, as direct-acting agonists of S1P1. Multiple examples of both classes of agonists have been selected as development candidates, a subset of which have advanced to clinical trials.
Article
The kinase oncogenes are well-characterized drivers of cancer development, and several targeted therapies focused on both specific and selectively nonselective kinase inhibitors have now been approved for clinical use. In contrast, much less is known about the role of protein phosphatases, although modulation of their activities might form the foundation for an effective anti-cancer approach. The serine-threonine protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is implicated in the regulation of numerous signaling pathways and may function as a tumor suppressor. Recently pharmacological modulation of PP2A activity has been showed to have a potent anti-tumor activity in both in vitro and in vivo cancer models. These studies implicate PP2A as a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of cancer.
Article
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Blast crisis chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML-BC) and Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph1-positive) acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) are 2 fatal BCR/ABL-driven leukemias against which Abl kinase inhibitors fail to induce a long-term response. We recently reported that functional loss of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity is important for CML blastic transformation. We assessed the therapeutic potential of the PP2A activator FTY720 (2-amino-2-[2-(4-octylphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol hydrochloride), an immunomodulator in Phase III trials for patients with multiple sclerosis or undergoing organ transplantation, in CML-BC and Ph1 ALL patient cells and in in vitro and in vivo models of these BCR/ABL+ leukemias. Our data indicate that FTY720 induces apoptosis and impairs clonogenicity of imatinib/dasatinib-sensitive and -resistant p210/p190(BCR/ABL) myeloid and lymphoid cell lines and CML-BC(CD34+) and Ph1 ALL(CD34+/CD19+) progenitors but not of normal CD34+ and CD34+/CD19+ bone marrow cells. Furthermore, pharmacologic doses of FTY720 remarkably suppress in vivo p210/p190(BCR/ABL)-driven [including p210/p190(BCR/ABL)(T315I)] leukemogenesis without exerting any toxicity. Altogether, these results highlight the therapeutic relevance of rescuing PP2A tumor suppressor activity in Ph1 leukemias and strongly support the introduction of the PP2A activator FTY720 in the treatment of CML-BC and Ph1 ALL patients.
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The in vitro treatment of lpr thymocytes with FTY720 resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in cell viability due to apoptosis. In order to study the effect of FTY720 in vivo, lpr mice received an oral daily dose of 1 mg/kg FTY720 for 14 days, beginning at 16 weeks of age which was when the animals were developing massive lymphoadenopathy. Compared with untreated lpr mice, FTY720-treated lpr mice had significantly prolonged lives. At 24 weeks of age, treated mice demonstrated markedly reduced weights of the spleen and lymph nodes, and the proportion of CD3+ B220+ and CD4- CD8- cells in the thymus, spleen and lymph nodes decreased markedly. In addition, in these mice the percentage of CD4+ CD8+ and CD3- B220- cells in the thymus and the percentage of CD4+ CD8-, CD4- CD8+, CD3+ B220- and CD3- B220+ cells in the spleen returned to almost the normal values observed in wild-type mice. Histological observation 1 day after the final administration of FTY720 revealed a remarkable infiltration of neutrophils in the lymphoid organs. Apoptotic cells were detected in all the lymphoid organs using in situ DNA nick-end labelling. Electron microscopy showed that the apoptotic cells were ingested by phagocytes. FTY720 therapy is thus highly effective in Fas-mutant animals with abnormally expanding lymphocytes.
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We previously reported that FTY720 is an efficient inducer of apoptosis in lymphocytes and cultured cell lines. In the present study, HL-60 human promyerocytoma cells also induced apoptosis through in vitro treatment with the drug, demonstrating extensive DNA fragmentation 6 hr after incubation. The major target of FTY720 was the common signalling pathway of apoptosis, since a rapid (< 1 min) increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) was found in the cells treated with the drug. Calcium chelation in the culture medium with EGTA did not affect the [Ca2+]i mobilization. A phospholipase C inhibitor, U73122, inhibited the increase in [Ca2+]i as well as the fragmentation of the nuclear DNA, whereas U73343, a non-effective analogue of U73122, had little effect. These results suggest that FTY720-induced apoptosis is mediated through an activation of phospholipase C and the subsequent release of Ca2+ from intracellular calcium pools. In addition, the treatment of HL-60 with pertussis toxin (PTX) did not inhibit Ca2+ mobilization or apoptosis, suggesting that the activation of phospholipase C is independent of PTX-sensitive G-proteins.
Article
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Effects of FTY720 (2-amino-2-(2-[4-octylphenyl]ethyl)-1,3-propanediol HCl), a novel immunosuppressant, were examined on neurons and thymocytes respectively dissociated from rat brains and thymus glands using a flow cytometer to see if FTY720 exerts cytotoxic actions not only on spleen cells as previously reported but also on the other cells. FTY720 at a concentration of 10 microM deteriorated almost all of the thymocytes, while it was not the case for brain neurons. FTY720 increased the intracellular concentration of Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) of thymocytes in both the presence and absence of external Ca2+, although the [Ca2+]i increased by FTY720 in the presence of external Ca2+ was much greater than that in the absence of external Ca2+. Thus, FTY720 may increase the membrane permeability of Ca2+ and release Ca2+ from intracellular Ca2+ stores in thymocytes. Furthermore, the number of thymocytes stained with ethidium, a dye impermeant to intact membranes, time-dependently increased after drug application. Therefore, FTY720 at concentrations of 3 - 10 microM non-specifically increases the membrane permeability of thymocytes, resulting in necrotic cell death, although FTY720 at micromolar concentrations was reported to induce apoptosis of spleen cells.
Article
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FTY720 is a novel immunosuppressive drug derived from a metabolite from Isaria sinclairii that is known to induce apoptosis of rat splenic T cells. In this study, we examined the intracellular signaling pathway triggered by FTY720. Treatment of human Jurkat T lymphocytes with FTY720-induced apoptosis characterized by DNA fragmentation. The same treatment induced activation of protein kinases such as c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), p38/CSBP (CSAID-binding protein), and a novel 36-kDa myelin basic protein (MBP) kinase, but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Pretreatment of Jurkat cells with DEVD-CHO blocked FTY720-induced DNA fragmentation as well as the activation of p38/CSBP. However, DEVD-CHO treatment failed to inhibit FTY720-induced activation of JNK and the 36-kDa MBP kinase. We have also demonstrated that activation of the ERK signaling pathway completely suppressed the FTY720-induced apoptotic process including activation of caspase 3 and activation of JNK and the 36-kDa MBP kinase. Furthermore, transient expression of constitutively active mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase (MEK) protected the cells from FTY720-induced cell death. The effect of MEK was canceled by coexpression of a mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase, CL100. These results indicate that JNK and p38 pathways are differentially regulated during FTY720-induced apoptosis and that activation of ERK pathway alone is sufficient to cancel the FTY720-induced death signal.
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The 2-aminoalcohol series of immunosuppressants showed a bell-shaped relationship between the activity and the carbon number. The (R)-isomers were more potent than the (S)-isomers, and (R)-2-aminohexadecanol displayed comparably activity to a potent immunosuppressant, FTY720.
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2-Substituted 2-aminoethanol was shown to be the minimum essential structure for the immunosuppressive activity of ISP-i (myriocin, thermozymocidin) by simplification of 2-substituted 2-amino-1,3-propanediol, which was generated by modification of ISP-I. Among the series, 2-amino-4-(4-octylphenyl)butanol hydrochloride displayed comparably potent activity to 2-amino-2-[2-(4-octylphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol hydrochloride, FTY720.
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A new efficient five-step synthesis of the immunosuppressive agent FTY- 720 is described.
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The combination of FTY 720, a novel immunosuppressant, and allochimeric class I MHC proteins bearing donor-type amino acid (aa) epitope substitutions for host-type sequences induces tolerance of Wistar Furth (WF; RT1.Au) heart allografts in ACI (RT1.Aa) recipients. Allochimeric alpha(1h)l58-80-RT1.Aa proteins were produced by substituting the allogeneic nucleotide sequence encoding 10 aa residues unique to the alpha1 helical (alpha1h) region of RT1.Al Lewis (Asp58, Arg62, Glu63, Gln65, Lys66, Gly69, Asn70, Asn73, Ser77, and Asn80) for native RT1.Aa residues. The RT1.Au and the RT1.Al haplotypes share four of these aa (Arg62, Glu63, Gln65, and Gly69). A baculovirus/Spodoptera frugiperda insect cell system was used to express the alpha(1h)l58-80-RT1.Aa proteins. The addition of a 3-day oral gavage of 0.05 mg/kg/day FTY720 to a single portal vein injection of 10 microg alpha(1h)l58-80-RT1.Aa protein induced permanent acceptance of WF heart allografts in 16 of 26 ACI recipients (>100 days); the alpha(1h)l58-80-RT1.Aa protein alone only modestly prolonged WF heart survival (13.8+/-0.8 days). The same tolerogenic protocol did not prolong the survival of third-party Brown Norway (RT1.An) heart allografts (14.3+/-2.5 days) compared with FTY720 alone (14.0+/-2.3 days; NS). Tolerant ACI recipients bearing primary WF heart allografts for more than 100 days accepted second WF hearts, but promptly rejected third-party Brown Norway heart grafts (9.3+/-1.5 days). The tolerant state was transferred to irradiated ACI rats (400 rad) with either purified T cells (4-10 x 10[7]) or serum (1-2 ml) from tolerant hosts, and was not broken by daily intraperitoneal injections of interleukin-2 (1000 U/day; 7 days). The combination of allochimeric protein with FTY720 induces transplantation tolerance, a state that may be associated with the appearance of donor-specific regulatory factors.
Article
The immunomodulator, FTY720, lowers the peripheral lymphocyte count (PLC) by inducing migration of circulating lymphocytes to secondary lymphoid organs. We investigated the efficacy of mono- vs. combined-FTY720/CsA therapy on graft survival (GS) and on lowering the PLC in a solid organ and a skin graft model, using strains with strong MHC disparity. Heterotopic cardiac or tail skin grafting was performed using the DA (RT1a) to Lewis (RT1(1)) rat strain combination. FTY720 was administered as a single daily dose by gavage alone or in combination with subcutaneously delivered CsA. PLC, body weight and drug concentrations were determined on day 7, 28, or the day of rejection. In placebo-treated animals the heart and skin allografts rejected after 6 and 8 days. FTY720 delayed rejection of both the solid organ and skin grafts. The maximal effect was achieved at 1 mg x kg(-l) x day(-1) FTY720, resulting in a median survival time (MST) of 14 days for both allotransplants comparable to the effect achieved by 1 mg x kg x day(-1) CsA in both models. In the cardiac graft experiment with CsA co-administration, doses of 0.3 and 1 mg/kg were used. Under these conditions very small doses of FTY720 were effective in maintaining grafts throughout the treatment period. Adding higher FTY720 doses to the 1 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1) CsA was needed to effectively extend the skin GS, e.g. 0.3 mg x kg(-l) x day(-1) FTY720 prolonged GS from 13 to 47.5 days MST, i.e. well beyond the 28 day-treatment period. CsA did not influence the PLC at clinically relevant doses. FTY720 lowered the PLC significantly and dose-dependently, at doses lower than those needed for the prolongation of both cardiac and skin GS with FTY720 monotherapy. In rats with skin grafts the PLC was markedly lowered up to 1 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1) FTY720, whereas, in the heart model, it was lowered up to 0.1 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1). Independently of the graft type, within the combination regimens 0.3 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1) FTY720 achieved a maximal PLC depletion. Combining FTY720 and CsA was very well tolerated with respect to weight gain and lack of any clinically detectable infections. In the strain combination used FTY720 monotherapy was less effective than previously reported in maintaining grafts. The two-drug regimens extended strikingly the GS for both models. However, the prolongation of the heart GS was smoothly dose-related with FTY720 doses ranging from 0.01 to 1 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1) , whereas, the skin graft prolongation was modest at doses up to 0.1 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1) and remarkably enhanced at 0.3 and 1 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1) FTY720.
Article
CTLA4Ig strongly adheres to B7 molecules on antigen-presenting cells to block intracellular signal transduction via CD28 on helper T cells, which eventually inhibits immune responses. We have demonstrated that the administration to recipient animals of adenoviral vectors containing CTLA4Ig gene (adCTLA4Ig) prolonged graft survival, although the gene expression diminished in a time-dependent manner and the grafts were finally rejected. In addition, recipient animals treated with FTY720, a new immunosuppressant, exhibited a decrease in the number of peripheral lymphocytes due to apoptosis. In this study, we performed adCTLA4Ig transfection combined with FTY720 treatment in heart-grafted rats to determine if the combination could induce a mutual effect on graft survival. The recipient animals were given injections of 1 2 109 plaque-forming units of adCTLA4Ig via the tail vein immediately after grafting. On the day before transplantation we administered FTY720 orally to some of these animals at a dosage of 5 mg/kg and again on the day of transplantation. The median graft survival period in the adCTLA4Ig-only group was 27 days, whereas that in the combination group was markedly prolonged to 56 days. Of 15 grafts, 5 survived indefinitely. In these groups we observed detectable levels of CTLA4Ig in the sera 49 days after grafting; the levels were always higher in the combination group than in the adCTLA4Ig-only group. As a result, this study revealed that FTY720 and adCTLA4Ig have a potent mutual effect on graft survival during rat heart transplantation. Furthermore, it is highly possible that FTY720 enhances gene expression of adCTLA4Ig, which may be related to the long-term acceptance of grafts.
Article
FTY720, a new immunosuppressant active in transplantation models, modulates lymphocyte re-circulation, leading to peripheral lymphopenia and increased lymphocytes in lymph nodes and Peyer's patches. Here, we investigated the susceptibility of baboons to FTY720 as an introductory study to transplantation protocols. FTY720 was administered orally to Chacma baboons at 0.3 or 0.1 mg/kg/day for 3 days or at 0.03 mg/kg/day for 10 days. Haematological parameters, lymphocyte phenotype (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20), cell apoptosis, ex vivo blood cell proliferation in response to mitogens and drug blood levels were monitored during treatment and up to 4 weeks thereafter. FTY720 administered p.o. in baboons at 0.3 mg/kg/day caused a marked decrease in circulating lymphocytes within 4 h of treatment, reaching 60-80% decrease within 24-48 h. The effect of FTY720 was seen both on T- and B cells, although it was slightly more rapid/pronounced on T cells. CD4+ cells were slightly more affected than CD8+ cells. The response onset was faster and the duration longer at higher dose, but the maximal peripheral lymphodepletion achieved was similar within the dose range 0.03-0.3 mg/kg tested. Ex vivo mitogen-induced lymphoproliferation was drastically decreased after FTY720 treatment, corresponding to the reduced blood lymphocyte counts. The blood drug levels measured after FTY720 administration correlated well with the dose applied but there was a poor correlation between FTY720 blood levels and the extent of peripheral lymphodepletion, suggestive of a high tissue distribution of the drug. When compared with cynomolgus monkeys treated in the same way, baboons had a lower initial exposure and a slightly lower response 24 h after one or two doses of FTY720 0.03-0.3 mg/kg. However, the stabilized drug blood levels and peripheral lymphodepletion achieved after 7 days of FTY720 0.03 mg/kg/day were similar in both nonhuman primate species. FTY720 was well tolerated and was effective in terms of peripheral T- and B lymphodepletion in baboons, indicating that it could be used in protocols of allo- and xenotransplantation. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of FTY720 in baboons suggest the use of high induction doses to optimize immediate response followed by a reduced dose regimen for drug maintenance.
Article
In the present study, we examined the immunosuppressive effect of a new drug, FTY720, on small bowel transplantation (SBT) in rats. Grafts from (LEW x BN) F1-to-LEW rats treated with FTY720 at 0.5 mg/kg from day 0 to 14 post-SBT survived significantly longer than untreated grafts. In addition, the administration of FTY720 combined with cyclosporin (CyA; 5 mg/kg per day) had a synergistic effect on allograft survival. The graft-versus-host reaction (GVHR) that occurred in the LEW-to-F1 rats was markedly reduced after the administration of FTY720. FTY720 combined with a low dose of CyA completely abrogated GVHR without any adverse reaction. FTY720 treatment resulted in a significant decrease in the number of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood and the spleen, but the number of peripheral neutrophils was unchanged. Thus, FTY720 would appear to be an ideal drug to combine with CyA in order to control the immune reaction after SBT.
Article
A new immunosuppressant, FTY720, was applied to limb allotransplants and its effectiveness was investigated. Using inbred rats, for which the major histocompatibility complexes were completely mismatched, 31 limb transplantations were performed and FTY720 was administered at a dose of 1.5 or 3 mg per kilogram per day for 10 days postoperatively. Rejection was monitored by the appearance of the skin of the grafted hind limb, soft radiograph, microangiography, and histology. In animals receiving no immunosuppressive therapy, the mean onset of rejection was 4.2+/-1.0 days postoperatively, and the grafted limbs became acutely necrotic. The mean onset of rejection was 6.0+/-0.9 days in animals receiving FTY720 at a dose of 1.5 mg per kilogram per day and 7.9+/-1.5 days in animals receiving FTY720 at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram per day. Survival of the grafted limbs was significantly prolonged compared with that in animals without immunosuppression. The immunosuppressive effect of FTY720 appeared to be dose dependent; however, complete suppression of rejection could not be obtained with FTY720 therapy alone.
Article
FTY720 induces apoptosis, specifically in lymphocytes, and prolongs allograft survival in rats and dogs. The purpose of this study was to define an effective range of FTY720 doses that could be combined with a suboptimal dose (10 mg/kg) of cyclosporin for canine kidney allograft recipients. The combination significantly prolonged allograft survival in all groups receiving FTY720 at a dose of 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 mg/kg. None of the recipients died due to notable side effects of the drug. In peripheral blood, the number of lymphocytes was extremely low, whereas the percentage of granulocytes increased during FTY720 administration. No significant difference in cyclosporin trough levels was observed between the cyclosporin-alone group and the combination groups. We conclude from the present study that FTY720 has a potent effect at an extremely low dose and a wide therapeutic window when combined with cyclosporin in canine kidney transplants.
Article
We examined the ability of FTY720, a novel immunosuppressant that prolongs the survival of allografts in experimental animal models, to potentiate the immunosuppressive effects of cyclosporine (CsA) and/or sirolimus (SRL) in vitro and in vivo. FTY720 alone (10-5000 ng/ml) or in combination with other drugs was added to human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) undergoing stimulation in vitro with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or OKT3 monoclonal antibody. The combination index (CI) values were calculated to evaluate the nature of the interactions between FTY720 and CsA and/or SRL: CI values <1 reflect synergistic, CI=1, additive, and CI>1, antagonistic interactions. In addition, Wistar Furth (RT1u) rat recipients of Buffalo (RT1b) heart allografts were treated with FTY720 alone or in combination with other agents. FTY720 alone was also tested to block small bowel or liver allograft rejection in rats. FTY720 alone produced only modest inhibition of the proliferation of human PBL stimulated with PHA or OKT3 monoclonal antibody. In combination with CsA or SRL, however, FTY720 produced synergistic effects, namely, CI values of 0.58 and 0.36, respectively. A 14-day course of FTY720 (0.05-8.0 mg/kg/day) by oral gavage prolonged heart allograft survival in dose-dependent fashion. Although a 14-day oral course of CsA (1.0 mg/kg/day) alone was ineffective (mean survival time=7.0+/-0.7 vs. 6.4+/-0.6 days in treated vs. untreated hosts), treatment with a combination of 1.0 mg/kg/day CsA and 0.1 mg/kg/day FTY720 extended allograft survival to 62.4+/-15.6 days (P<0.001; CI=0.15). Similarly, a 14-day oral course of 0.08 mg(kg/day SRL alone was ineffective (6.8+/-0.6 days; NS), but the combination of SRL with 0.5 mg/kg/day FTY720 extended the mean survival time to 34.4+/-8.8 days (CI=0.28). The CsA/SRL (0.5/0.08 mg/kg/day) combination acted synergistically with FTY720 (0.1 mg/kg/day) to prolong heart survivals to >60 days (CI=0.18). FTY720 potentiates the immunosuppressive effects of CsA and/or SRL both in vitro (by inhibiting of T-cell proliferative response) and in vivo (by inhibiting allograft rejection).
Article
The present study was designed to analyze the immunosuppressive activity of FTY720 in concordant xenotransplantation. When T and B lymphocytes of human peripheral blood were incubated with FTY720, the number of viable cells decreased in a dose-dependent manner at doses higher than 4 x 10(-5) M. DNA fragmentation was observed at doses higher than 1 x 10(-5) M in T cell-rich fractions and at doses higher than 4 x 10(-5) M in B cell-rich fractions. These data demonstrate that FTY720 is cytotoxic to B lymphocytes as well as T lymphocytes and apoptosis may play an important role in this cytotoxicity. Golden Syrian hamsters were the donors and Lewis rats the recipients of skin grafts. The recipients were divided into the following four groups: (1) untreated recipients, (2) FTY720 (5 mg/kg per day) was administered orally for 8 days (days-1-6), (3) FK506 (1 mg/kg per day) was injected i.m. for 7 days (days 0-6), and (4) FK506 (1 mg/kg per day) was injected i.m. for 7 days (days 0-6) and FTY720 (5 mg/kg per day) was administered orally for 8 days (days-1-6). The mean graft survival times in groups 1-4 were 9.7 +/- 0.52 days (n = 6), 12.0 +/- 0.71 days (n = 6), 13.2 +/- 1.6 days (n = 6), and 37.7 +/- 4.3 days (n = 6), respectively. There was a significant difference in the mean survival time between groups one and four. Combined therapy with FTY720 and FK506 is a useful tool for immunoregulation in xenotransplantation.
Article
FTY720 is a recently discovered compound that is derived from the fungus Isaria sinclairii. Using a DA donor-to-LEW recipient rat combination, we assessed the efficacy of peritransplant FTY720 alone or in combination with post-transplant tacrolimus on the survival of cardiac allografts. Peritransplant FTY720 given orally at a dose of 5 mg/kg on days-1 and 0 prolonged graft survival from 5 to 13 days (P < 0.05). Combining peritransplant FTY720 with post-transplant tacrolimus resulted in a further prolongation of allograft survival. The lymphocyte count in transplanted rats decreased within 24 h to 46.6%. Analysis of lymphocyte subsets by FACS revealed that FTY720 affected the total population of CD3-bearing T cells while the ratio of CD4 to CD8 cells remained unchanged. Kidney and liver biochemistry remained elevated for 2 weeks. In conclusion, FTY720 is a powerful immunosuppressive agent when used as induction therapy and may have an additive effect--perhaps a synergistic one--with post-transplant tacrolimus.
Article
A newly developed immunosuppressant, FTY720, has a unique mechanism that is quite different from those of conventional immunosuppressants, and is presumed to be mediated through decreases in the number of peripheral lymphocytes, especially helper T cells. This study was performed to ascertain whether this innovative drug could prolong islet allograft survival. The donors were inbred Lewis rats and the recipients were ACI rats rendered hyperglycemic with intravenous streptozotocin. In the study group, FTY720 dissolved in distilled water was orally administered at a dose of 5 mg/kg to the recipient ACI rats 1 day before and on the day of grafting. In the control group, only distilled water was orally administered to the recipient ACI rats on the day before and the day of grafting. Two thousand islets were transplanted into the portal vein of the recipient rats in the study and control groups immediately after isolation. The graft survival time in the study group was significantly longer than that in the control group, indicating that FTY720 retains a potent effect on the prolongation of islet allograft survival. FTY720 could become a useful immunosuppressant for future clinical islet allotransplantation.
Article
FTY720 is a synthetic analog of a fungal metabolite that shows potent immunosuppressive activity in vitro and in vivo with little apparent toxicity. The drug displays marked synergistic effects in vivo with CsA and/or rapamycin. Therefore, this drug may improve the therapeutic window of agents that target cytokine synthesis or signal transduction. Because of these promising findings, the agent is likely to be tested in humans as an adjunct to clinical immunosuppressive regimens.
Article
A novel immunosuppressant, FTY720, was generated by chemical modification of ISP-I, an immunosuppressive compound purified from culture filtrates of Isaria sinclairii. FTY720 directly induces apoptotic cell death in lymphocytes, which is believed to be the mechanism by which this drug exerts its immunosuppressive effect. We examined the effect of FTY720 treatment on antigen-induced apoptotic cell death in peripheral T cells and thymocytes. A superantigen, staphylococcus enterotoxin B (SEB), induces T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) Vbeta-specific apoptotic cell death in mature T cells in vivo. In this well-documented experimental system, FTY720 administration significantly enhanced the efficiency of superantigen-induced T-cell deletion. We also determined that apoptotic cell death with DNA fragmentation induced in T-hybridoma cells after stimulation in vitro with anti-TCR antibodies was enhanced in the presence of non-cytolytic doses of FTY720. In sharp contrast, negative selection of T cells in the thymus, another example of antigen-induced apoptosis, was found to be inhibited by FTY720 treatment. A rescue effect was observed on clonal deletion in the H-Y-specific TCRalpha beta transgenic male thymus. In a chicken egg albumin (OVA)-specific TCRalphabeta transgenic system, OVA-induced apoptotic cell death of CD4+CD8+ thymocytes was also inhibited by FTY720 injection. Thus, FTY720 increased the susceptibility of mature T cells to TCR-mediated apoptosis but decreased that of immature thymocytes. The results in this report suggest that the potent immunosuppressive effect of FTY720 is, in part, a result of the augmentation of effects on antigen-induced apoptosis in mature T cells, and that two distinct apoptotic cell death pathways are operating in mature and immature T cells.
Article
In rodent transplant models, FTY720 exerts a synergistic affect with cyclosporine (CsA) to prolong allograft survival. The present experiments sought to test this combination in subhuman primates. Cynomolgus monkeys were transplanted with kidney allografts that were incompatible in mixed lymphocyte culture reactions. The animals were treated with daily intramuscular injections of CsA using doses selected to maintain whole blood trough concentrations at therapeutic values between 40 and 200 ng/ml. The 4 experimental groups included CsA without or with 0.1, 0.3, or 1 mg/kg/day FTY720 delivered daily by intravenous bolus injection. Therapeutic effects were suggested both by the graft histology of biopsy within the first 10 posttransplant days and by the length of host survival. Whereas recipients treated with CsA alone rejected kidney allografts at a median survival time of 8.5 days (n=4), those treated with either 0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg/day FTY720 in addition to CsA showed significant prolongation of kidney allograft survival to 71 days (n=3; P<0.04) or 63 days (n=5; P<0.05), respectively. The hosts in the 1.0 mg/kg/day FTY720 group survived 48 days, with 2 of 5 recipients succumbing at 9 or 17 days postgraft, suggesting possible complications caused by overimmunosuppression. Biopsies of the 0.1 mg/kg/day FTY720 group on posttransplant day 7 documented mild to moderate rejection (grade I), indicated by multiple focal areas of tubular destruction. The histology results of transplants in the 0.3 or 1 mg/kg/day FTY720 group showed only minimal interstitial inflammatory infiltrates (borderline grade), with no evidence of tubular or arterial damage. Serum creatinine values among the animals in the 0.1 mg/kg/day FTY720 group showed increases in 2 of 3 recipients by day 20 and in the third by day 41 postgraft. Among the 0.3 mg/kg/day FTY720 group, 3 of 5 recipients maintained baseline creatinine values to 45 days postgraft; 1 recipient had stable kidney function for 120 days postgraft. Addition of FTY720 therapy to a subtherapeutic CsA immunosuppressive regimen delays the rejection of renal allografts in subhuman primates.
Article
The immunosuppressive effects of a new agent, FTY720, on joint allografts were studied histologically in a rat model. Favorable results without side effects were obtained at a dose of 3.0 mg/kg/day. The authors believe that this agent is one of the most useful immunosuppressants in the reported experimental model.
Article
While autoimmune disease needs to be continuously treated via long term, administration of immunosuppressants conventional immunotherapy using drugs such as cyclosporin and tacrolimus may cause adverse effects. Recently, a novel agent, FTY720, which was structurally modified from a natural product, has been shown to have a moderate and different immunosuppressive effect from conventional drugs. In this study, we examined the effect of FTY720 on experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT), which was induced in rats by neonatal thymectomy, followed by subsequent sublethal irradiation. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was measured before and at the end of drug therapy. Histological and hematological examinations were performed using the samples from sacrificed animals. High TSH levels in the animals returned to the normal range following treatment with FTY720. The severity of the thyroiditis was lower in the FTY720 group than in the control group. FTY720 markedly decreased the number of circulatory lymphocytes, and no infections episodes were observed under this treatment. Thus, FTY720 treatment might be preferred for continuous immunotherapy for autoimmune disease without adverse effects.
Article
FTY720 (FTY) exerts its effects through a reduction of peripheral lymphocytes. This unique mechanism allows for a possible combination effect with other immunosuppressants. We investigated therapy with FTY combined with tacrolimus (FK) in rat liver transplantation. Different doses of FK, FTY, or both were orally administered to the recipients for 15 days. Expression of cytokine mRNAs using RT-PCR and appearance of lymphocyte apoptosis by immunohistologic staining were studied in the allografts. Recipients treated with a low dose of FK (0.3 mg/kg) or FTY (0.03 mg/kg) showed a slightly prolonged survival time, although combination therapy with these drugs prolonged survival time similar to the duration obtained by an optimal dose of each drug alone. A marked suppression of lymphocyte infiltration and decreased levels of mRNAs for IL-2, IFN-gamma, and granzyme B were seen in the grafts with combination therapy. Grafts with combination therapy showed an increased number of cells double-stained with TUNEL and CD2 in infiltrated lymphocytes. Allografts that underwent combination therapy demonstrated markedly reduced lymphocyte infiltration; a number of cells had induced apoptosis and an inhibition of IL-2, IFN-gamma, and granzyme B mRNA transcription, but not IL-4 and IL-10 transcripts, accounting for powerful mutual effect of FTY and FK.
Article
The immunosuppressive effect and other properties of a novel immunosuppressant, FTY720, have been studied mostly in the experimental transplantation of various extrahepatic organs. In this experiment, we evaluated the antirejection potency and adverse effects of this agent on liver grafts using a canine liver transplantation model. Forty-eight orthotopic liver transplantations were performed by the standard technique under a veno-venous bypass. Liver recipients were divided into two studies: a single-dose study with FTY720 at various doses and a combined dose study with conventional immunosuppressants (cyclosporine or tacrolimus) alone and combined with FTY720. Survival, biochemical and hematological tests, blood levels of immunosuppressants, and postmortem histology were determined. The median survival of untreated control animals was 9 days, whereas treatment with FTY720 at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg/day prolonged graft survival to 49.5 days. FTY720 at 1 mg/kg/day showed a slight but insignificant prolongation to 16 days, but when the dose was increased to 5 mg/kg/day, the graft was rejected at 10 days. The combination of FTY720, 0.1 mg/kg/day, with a subtherapeutic dose of cyclosporine, 5 mg/kg/ day, prolonged median animal survival from 40 days with cyclosporine alone to 74 days. A combination of FTY720 (0.1 mg/kg/day) with tacrolimus (0.5 mg/kg/ day) compromised animal survival, reducing survival from 83.5 days with tacrolimus alone to 30.5 days due to infectious complication and emaciation by overimmunosuppression. No evident drug-induced side effects were observed. FTY720 has a potent immunosuppressive effect when used alone at 0.1 mg/kg/day in canine liver transplantation. FTY720 is a promising candidate for future clinical application in orthotopic liver transplantation.
Article
The effect of pretreatment with FTY720 (2-amino-2-[2-(4-octylphenyl)ethyl]-1,3-propanediol hydrochloride) or cyclosporin, or both, on neutrophil-mediated injury has been examined by use of a rat model of transient clamping of hepatic flow. Pretreatment with FTY720 alone or with cyclosporin induced a marked reduction of circulatory lymphocytes, whereas the use of these drugs in combination was very effective at suppressing the elevation of the number of peripheral polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) after reperfusion. Pretreatment with cyclosporin, with or without FTY720, significantly reduced hepatic damage, whereas FTY720 alone tended to prolong hepatic damage. Pretreatment of cyclosporin alone, but not in combination with FTY720, significantly reduced the accumulation of PMN and led to lower myeloperoxidase levels in the damaged liver. In conclusion, pretreatment with cyclosporin, with or without FTY720, reduced hepatic damage after warm ischaemia-reperfusion, whereas pretreatment with FTY720 alone tended to prolong this damage.
Article
Graft vessel disease (GVD) is an important problem often responsible for late graft loss. The effects of FTY720, an immunomodulator with a novel mechanism of action were investigated in combination with cyclosporine A (CsA) in a carotid artery allograft model. A segment of the carotid artery of Lewis rats was replaced by a DA allograft. Seven groups of eight rats were treated for 8 weeks with vehicle (P), CsA 0.3 (C0.3), 1 (C1) or 3 (C3) mg x kg(-1).day(-1) or a combination of CsA 1 with FTY 0.01 (C1F0.01), 0.03 (C1F0.03), and 0.1 (C1F0.1) mg x kg(-1).day(-1). Lumen area was estimated by magnetic resonance imaging, peripheral lymphocyte count and drug concentrations were determined at 1 and 8 weeks. Neointima, media, and lumen area were measured morphometrically. Intimal and adventitial infiltration of mononuclear cells, and medial smooth muscle cells number was assessed using a score. FTY720 did not influence CsA blood concentrations. FTY720 but not CsA decreased the PLC dose dependently. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that treatment groups have larger lumen size than group P. Histological and morphometric evaluation showed that all aspects of GVD were dose dependently suppressed by treatment and lumen narrowing was prevented. CsA, at clinically relevant blood levels, suppressed GVD only partly. The addition of FTY720 was well tolerated and completely suppressed GVD development. In vivo lumen size did not correlate with the histologically estimated neointimal thickness.
Article
FTY720, a potent immunosuppressant, dramatically decreases the number of peripheral blood lymphocytes within a few hours after administration. The current study assessed the significance of timing of FTY720 administration on the immunosuppressive effect to prolong rat skin allograft survival (WKAH donor to F344 recipient). The median survival time of allografts was 7 days in the control recipients. FTY720 (1 mg/kg/day) significantly prolonged allograft survival when administered from days 0 and 3, but failed to exert an immunosuppressive effect when administered from day 4. Intragraft T cells, especially CD8(+) T cells, were markedly increased in number from day 4 to 6, peaking on day 5 in control recipients. FTY720 markedly decreased the number of intragraft CD8(+) T cells on day 5 when administered from days 0 and 3. In recipients administered with FTY720 from day 4, the number of intragraft CD8(+) T cells were only partially decreased on day 5. Intragraft CD8(+) T-cell number in those recipients on day 5 was almost the same as that in control recipients on day 4. In addition, FTY720 did not affect the increase in frequency of CD25(+) cells in the CD8(+) T-cell subset in allografts. It is likely that recipients treated with FTY720 from day 4 reject allografts by intragraft immune responses involved in CD8(+) T cells which had infiltrated before day 4, similar to control recipients. These findings suggest that FTY720 should be administered before increase in T cell infiltration into grafts to inhibit acute allograft rejection.
Article
The new immunomodulator 2-amino-2-(2-[4-octylphenyl]ethyl)-1,3-propanediol hydrochloride (FTY720) lowers the peripheral lymphocyte count (PLC) by inducing migration of circulating lymphocytes to secondary lymphoid organs. This effect is dose-dependent at low (up to 0.1 mg/kg per day) doses in rats. We investigated the correlation between PLC and the later rejection, when FTY720 was combined with RAD. Heterotopic cardiac grafting was performed using the DA-Lewis strain combination. FTY720 and RAD were administered as single daily doses by gavage alone and in combination starting 3 days before to 28 days after transplantation. Graft survival was monitored daily by palpation. PLC was determined at 1 and 4 weeks, body weight (BW) weekly. Histologic evaluation of grafted hearts was performed after rejection. FTY720 at doses of 0.03, 0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg per day prolonged graft survival dose-dependently from 6 (placebo) to 7, 9.5 and 15 days median survival time (MST). RAD at doses of 0.3, 1 and 3 mg/kg per day delayed rejection to 8.5, 18 and 37.5 days MST. Very small FTY720 doses added to the lower RAD doses were effective in maintaining grafts throughout the treatment period and with normal weight gain, as opposed to regimens with 1 mg/kg or more per day RAD, which resulted in delayed weight gain. FTY720 lowered the PLC significantly and dose-dependently. The PLC correlated well with graft survival [Spearman rank correlation (n = 30, rs = -0.75)]. Fully effective FTY720 + RAD combination regimens caused no side effects with respect to the rats' general well-being or weight gain and were better tolerated than equiactive RAD monotherapy, suggesting a broader therapeutic window for the combinations. Under the experimental conditions, the PLC decrease showed an interesting correlation with the anti-rejection effects in these two-drug regimens. Thus, in rats the PLC is helpful for monitoring the biological activity of FTY720 at low doses (< 0.1 mg/kg per day), i.e. in the range of the steep part of its dose-response relationship.
Article
The novel immunosuppressive compound FTY 720A posseses a mode of action which is different from all other immunosuppressive drugs. The most prominent feature is a reversible decrease in peripheral lymphocyte counts observed in animal experiments. We investigated in the first human trial (phase 1) whether FTY 720A induces apoptosis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in stable renal allograft recipients. Monitoring of lymphocyte counts revealed a significant and dose-dependent decrease within 6 h post-FTY 720A dose: placebo 5.1%; 0.25 mg 36.4%; 0.5 mg 40.8%; 0.75 mg 39.4%; 1 mg 45.8%; 2 mg 67.2%; 3.5 mg 64.9%. PBMC apoptosis rates did not change, as determined before intake of FTY 720A and 2 h, 6 h, 24 h and 96 h post-FTY 720A dose. We detected no significant difference in apoptosis rates between patients who received placebo or FTY 720A. However, in vitro experiments showed that high concentrations of FTY 720 A induced apoptosis in human PBMC.
Article
FTY720 is a new immunosuppressant active in transplantation models, which modulates lymphocyte recirculation, leading to transient peripheral lymphopenia and increased lymphocytes in lymph nodes and Peyer's patches. Here, we investigated the susceptibility of cynomolgus monkeys to FTY720 given orally either alone or in combination with two other immunosuppressants, Cyclosporin Neoral or RAD, as an introductory study to transplantation protocols. Each of the three phases of the study comprised a 3-week treatment period with FTY720 administered daily orally at 0.3, 0.1 or 0.03 mg/kg/day, respectively, followed by a 3-week recovery. FTY720 was given as single compound during the first week and in combination with Neoral at 20 mg/kg/day p.o. or RAD at 0.5 mg/kg/day p.o. during the subsequent 2 weeks. These treatment regimen were well tolerated, except for some body weight loss at high FTY720 dose (0.3 mg/kg/day). FTY720 treatment resulted in a rapid decrease of white blood cell counts which reached a plateau after 3 days. A decrease in both T- and B-lymphocyte counts by up to 80-90% was seen with FTY720 doses of 0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg/day. FTY720 blood levels, both trough levels and AUC(0-24 h), showed a linear relationship with FTY720 dose. The reduction in lymphocyte counts was not directly proportional to FTY720 blood levels. The exposure to FTY720 significantly increased upon coadministration of Neoral. This pharmacokinetic interaction was not observed for coadministration of RAD. However, the peripheral lymphodepletion was slightly increased after coadministration of RAD but not of Neoral. This may be related to the intrinsic effects of RAD on hematopoietic cells. FTY720 given orally was effective in terms of peripheral T- and B-lymphodepletion and was well tolerated in cynomolgus monkeys even in combination with Cyclosporine Neoral or RAD, indicating that such combination protocols could be used in allo- and xenotransplantation in this species. However, the data indicate a potentiation of FTY720 exposure by CsA coadministration and additional lymphodepletion by coadministration of FTY720 and RAD which should be carefully monitored.
Article
FTY720 lowers the peripheral lymphocyte count (PLC) by accelerating the migration of circulating lymphocytes to secondary lymphoid organs. We investigated the efficacy of combined FTY720+cyclosporine (CsA) treatment versus monotherapy on prolonging graft survival and on lowering the PLC. BALB/c hearts were heterotopically grafted in C3H mice. FTY720 was administered alone or in combination with CsA. PLC and body weight were determined on day 7, day 28, or the day of rejection. Combining FTY720 with CsA prolonged, dose-dependently and significantly, the allograft survival. FTY720, but not CsA, lowered the PLC dose-dependently. The granulocyte count was not reduced in any group. FTY720 concentrations were not influenced by the CsA co-administration. Combined FTY720 and CsA treatment was well tolerated, promoted graft survival, and suppressed the inflammatory allo-response. The PLC lowering correlated well with the antirejection effects in the two-drug regimens, suggesting that the PLC might guide FTY720 therapy at low doses.
Article
Due to the improvement in the understanding of the anti-allogenic immune response, the success of transplantation medicine has increased rapidly over the last two decades. The knowledge that the T-lymphocyte played an integral role in transplant rejection, brought cyclosporine A and FK-506 to the fore as therapeutic immunosuppressants. However, the current mainstays in transplant rejection are not without their problems and many drug companies are exploring the possibilities of improving the available therapies by developing drugs with reduced toxicity, improved long-term survival and efficacy against chronic rejection and improved immunosuppressive selectivity. The advances in the understanding of T-cell activation and lymphocyte trafficking has highlighted ways to improve the existing therapies and more selective immunosuppressant targets.
Article
The macrolide immunosuppressant RAD and the immunomodulator FTY720 have distinct mechanisms ofaction. We investigated the efficacy of RAD (everolimus, certican) alone or in combination with FTY720 on graft survival (GS)and histology in comparison with CsA, using mouse strains with strong MHC disparity. Heterotopic cardiac grafting was performed using the C57B1/6 to C3H strain combination. Osmotic mini-pumps filled with CsA or RAD were implanted subcutaneously. IFTY720 was administered as a single daily dose by gavage. Peripheral lymphocyte count (PLC) was determined at 1, 4 and 8 weeks or on the day of sacrifice. Body weight was recorded on the day of surgery and weekly. Grafts were histologically evaluated. In placebo-treated mice the allografts were rejected after 7 days. Monotherapy with 10 and 30 mg/kg/day CsA achieved 10 and 22.5 days median survival time (MST), while 0.1, 0.3, 1 and 3 mg/kg/day RAD resulted in 10.5, 20, > 56 and > 56 days MST, respectively. FTY720 lowered the PLC significantly, while the lower CsA dose and RAD did not influence the PLC. Adding FTY720 to the 0.6 mg/kg/day dose of RAD extended GS modestly but reduced significantly the perivascular infiltration and endothelialitis in the grafts compared with RAD monotherapy. Underthe conditions of the present experiment RAD was more potent than CsA in extending the GS. Combining FTY720 and RADwas well tolerated with respect to weight gain and lack of clinically detectable infections in the mice. The 2-drug regimens suppressed the inflammatory allo-response better than RAD monotherapy.