To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.
This study tested the criterion validity of the inventory, Mental Toughness 48, by assessing the correlation between mental toughness and physical endurance for 41 male undergraduate sports students. A significant correlation of .34 was found between scores for overall mental toughness and the time a relative weight could be held suspended. Results support the criterion-related validity of the Mental Toughness 48.
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.
... We used this task because a similar physical endurance task was employed by Crust and Clough (2005) to provide criterion validity for a measure of mental toughness, a multidimensional concept from sport psychology having to do with competitive confidence, resilience, persistence, and control. Mental toughness is considered to be one of the most important psychological predictors of competitive success (Crust, 2007). ...
... Mental toughness is considered to be one of the most important psychological predictors of competitive success (Crust, 2007). In Crust and Clough (2005), total mental toughness score was positively related to "weight-holding endurance" measured in units of time (r = 0.34) (p. 193). ...
... Endurance requires a combination of physical and mental components that interact to aid in the expression of competitive "effort" in nearly all contests for time. Indeed, holding a weight for time and has been previously and independently validated as a measure of mental toughness, a psychological construct in which competitive persistence is a core feature (Crust and Clough, 2005). Generally, in the absence of obvious differences in skill or knowledge, those who succeed in social contests must display superior energy, effort, mental or physical strength, willpower, and endurance over their opponent. ...
Transient shifts in testosterone occur during competition and are thought to positively influence dominance behavior aimed at enhancing social status. However, individual differences in testosterone reactivity to status contests have not been well-studied in relation to real-time expressions of competitive behavior among men and women. This research tests the association between changes in endogenous testosterone levels during competition and performance in terms of competitive endurance. Participant sex, social presence, and relative status outcomes (e.g., winning vs. losing) are tested as moderators of this relationship. In two studies, men and women (total N = 398) competed in the competitive will task (timed weight-holding) either individually or in the presence of an opponent (Study 1) or as a team with and without the presence of a competitor team (Study 2). Results showed a positive relationship between testosterone reactivity and performance for men, particularly those who won or ranked highest among their group - with increasing testosterone predicting better and decreasing testosterone predicting worse performance. For women, the effect only emerged among individuals who competed in dyads and lost. In Study 2, an exploratory mediation analysis revealed that individual differences in trait dominance predicted both testosterone reactivity to competition and task performance, with testosterone reactivity (moderated by sex and status outcome) partially explaining the direct relationship between dominance-related traits and behavior. Our goal was to examine testosterone reactivity in relation to real-time competitive effort and highlight the potential role of this relationship in explaining how individual differences in trait dominance produce competitive behavior.
... This is something to worry since many researchers had reported that mental toughness as a significant contributor to sports performance . Previous research on mental toughness and performance has consistently shown that better performances of both cognitive and motor skills are associated with higher levels of mental toughness [19,20] and that elite athletes have higher mental toughness than lower level performers [21,22]. In this study, the findings showed that all the players scored less than 4 for all the subscales of mental toughness which means the players have low mental toughness. ...
... However other studies failed to find any relationship between the anxiety and performance such as . Research on mental toughness and performance has consistently shown that better performances of both cognitive and motor skills are associated with higher levels of mental toughness [26,20] and that elite athletes have higher mental toughness than lower level performers . The effects of mental toughness and anxiety on performance are currently unclear, but research concerning the related concept of hardiness suggests successful interventions might be possible . ...
... Besides DT traits, the concept of mental toughness  has attracted scientific attention. Mental toughness refers to cognitive-emotional personality traits consisting of the Four Cs: namely Commitment to one own's defined goals, Confidence in oneself and others; Challenge in that changes are perceived as possibilities to improve, and Control over one own's life and behavior . ...
... Compared to the concept of resilience , it appears the MT offers a broader range of well-established and validated self-rating questionnaires [29,. Further, there is extant research among healthy adolescents , healthy adults [27,38,, and adult individuals with multiple sclerosis [63,64] to show that higher MT scores were related to higher physical activity levels. ...
There is consistent evidence that prenatal exposures to higher testosterone and lower estrogen concentrations during the first trimester of embryonal and fetal development are associated with a lower 2D:4D-ratio that is to say: The index finger (2D) is shorter, compared to the ring finger (4D). Compared to non-active, athletes show lower 2D:4D ratios. However, athletes also report specific personality traits such as mental toughness, assertiveness, and competitive behavior. Here, we tested, if 2D:4D-ratios were related to specific personality traits. We further investigated possible gender differences. A total of 460 active young adults (mean age: 24.81 years; 67% females) completed a series of self-rating questionnaires covering sociodemographic information and traits of the dark triad and mental toughness. Participants also provided a scan of their right palm hand to measure and calculate 2D:4D-ratios. T-tests, Pearson’s correlations, and multiple regression analysis were performed to analyze data. Compared to male participants, female participants had a higher 2D:4D-ratio. Female and male participants did not differ as regards dark triad traits and mental toughness traits. Irrespective of gender, and based on correlational computations, 2D:4D-ratios were unrelated to the dark triad (DT) and mental toughness (MT) scores. Higher DT scores were modestly associated with higher MT scores among females, but not among males. Lower 2D:4D-ratios were associated with higher constancy scores and the male gender. The constancy and male gender appeared to be associated with lower 2D:4D-ratios.
... As alternatives to PPI and PPI-A, Clough et al. (2002) developed the Mental Toughness Questionnaire 48 (MTQ 48) consistent with their model of mental toughness. Reflecting the name, the MTQ 48 contains 48 items that are scored on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from (1) strongly agree to (5) strongly disagree (Crust & Clough, 2005). It has an overall test-retest coefficient of 0.9, with the internal consistency of the subscales (Control, Commitment, Challenge and Confidence) found to be 0.73, 0.71, 0.71, and 0.8 respectively (Clough et al., 2002). ...
... Most contemporary researchers suggest that an individual's mental toughness will be determined by both inherited characteristics and by learning, experience, and environments influences (Bull et al., 2005;Gordon & Sridhar, 2005;Jones et al., 2002;Thelwell et al., 2005). Research into the relationship between mental toughness and performance has consistently shown that better performances of both cognitive and motor skills are associated with higher levels of mental toughness (Clough et al., 2002;Crust & Clough, 2005) and those elite athletes have higher mental toughness than lower level performers (Golby et al., 2003;Thomas, Schlinker, & Over, 1996). One of the key advances toward a greater understanding of mental toughness appears to be the development of valid and reliable measurement instruments. ...
Mental toughness refers to a collection of psychological characteristic which are central to optimal performance. Athletes, coaches, and sport psychologists have consistently implicated mental toughness as one of the most important psychological characteristics related to success in sports. Over the last few decades, numerous studies have been conducted to examine the role of mental toughness in sporting success. However, its conceptualization and measurement are without consensus. The purpose of this study is to systematically review some of the emerging definitions and conceptualizations, and examine how mental toughness could be nurtured. This review considers both qualitative and quantitative approaches to the study of mental toughness with the specific focus on the models and the development of the measurement of this construct. Although these discussions center on the general aspects of mental toughness, we believe many of the issues have relevance to scholars and practitioners who are interested in the measurement of psychological variables as they pertain to sport, exercise, and other performance or achievement contexts.
... MTQ-10, r = .53). These relationships were comparable to those reported by Crust and Clough (2005) (r = .56) and Marchant et al. (2009) (r = .56). ...
... Clough and colleagues (e.g., Crust & Clough, 2005) support the notion that MT is a trait-like dimension, whereas critics contend that MT lacks stability. Acknowledging this, several MTQ-48-related articles refer to the importance of the role of experiential factors. ...
The 18-item Mental Toughness Questionnaire (MTQ-18) is a brief, widely used measure of
mental toughness. The MTQ-18 derives from the longer MTQ-48, which comprises four
independent but correlated factors (Challenge, Commitment, Control and Confidence). Despite sampling items from across MTQ-48 dimensions, the MTQ-18 (as intended) provides a global, unidimensional score. Researchers have recently developed a further abridged version of the MTQ-18, the MTQ-10, which has demonstrated promising psychometric performance. The current paper assessed the factorial structure, reliability, predictive validity and invariance of the MTQ-18 and MTQ-10 in a sample of 944 students from English independent schools (year 11, aged 16 years). Respondents completed the MTQ-18 items online alongside the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the MTQ-10 was a superior general measure, because the MTQ-18 possessed additional variance to that accounted for by a unidimensional solution. Additionally, the MTQ-10 evidenced higher factor loadings and demonstrated better data-model fit. Tests of concurrent validity revealed the MTQ-10 was a stronger predictor of well-being (life satisfaction). Both the MTQ-18 and MTQ-10 demonstrated gender invariance at the configural, metric and scalar level. Overall, although the MTQ-18 was a psychometrically acceptable measure, the MTQ-10 was a superior unidimensional measure of MT.
... Mentally tough athletes perform both motor and cognitive tasks better and have better sport results. Being tough allows athletes to effectively use motor skills in stressful situations . So far, no single mechanism responsible for the impact of mental toughness on performance has been identified . ...
... Undoubtedly, one of the important elements is the athletes' perception of their own effort and fatigue. This interpretation can be important in understanding the relationship between mental toughness and pain, discomfort or diffculty . Explaining this relationship, Crust  refers to Rejski's pain sensation model. ...
The aim of the present review was to establish the correlation between mental toughness and sporting performance based on the results of studies published in scientific journals between 2000 and 2020. The keywords mental toughness and performance/ outcomes/ results/ competition were used to identify the papers. The search included the EBSCO and PubMed databases. Eventually, the analysis covered 18 articles. The research results presented in 16 papers confirmed the positive correlations of mental toughness with sport results and performance level. No such relationship was found only in equestrian and Alpine skiing athletes. Although mental toughness in basketball players did not correlate with the sport results, it was an important predictor. Higher mental toughness was found in athletes with better sports results, and it was a positive correlate or predictor of sports results. The relationships between mental toughness and competitive experience or age were not statistically significant. Various research tools were used to measure mental toughness: PPI, PPI-A, SMTQ, MTQ48, MTI, SMTI, MeBTough. The results confirm the positive correlation between mental toughness and sport results or performance levels in different sports, regardless of gender, age or level of sports skills. It seems appropriate to continue research on mental toughness in sport, including the relationship between mental toughness and sporting performance, differences between men and women, players in individual and team sports, the relationship between mental toughness and training experience, the athletes’ age, and the effectiveness of mental toughness programs.
... In ultra-marathon races, mental toughness presents as a factor associated with athletic performance , in the same way that previous research has concluded that mental tenacity is a key factor to success in various sports disciplines . Crust & Clough  showed evidence that the components of mental toughness are higher in individuals who can endure more extended periods of physical effort; however, subsequent studies have shown that mental toughness and self-efficacy were not significantly associated with ultramarathon performance, although athletes require this to be of the necessary standard to prepare for and compete in elite ultra-marathon events . Likewise, resilience has shown a positive correlation with sports performance and psychological well-being . ...
... The present study also found positive correlations between mental toughness and the athlete's level, meaning more elite runners scored higher on the MT scale, similar to the results found by [22,26,57,58] in various sports disciplines. Nevertheless, other studies did not find differences in the MT scale according to the athlete's level [27,28]. It is possible that the type of sport makes a difference in this sense. ...
The aim of this study was to analyze the psychological variables of runners of ultra-trail mountain races and their association with athletic performance and success. The sample was made up of 356 mountain runners, 86.7% men and 13.2% women, with a mean age of 42.7 years and 5.7 years of experience. Using pre- and post-race questionnaires, data were collected regarding mental toughness, resilience, and passion. The performance of each runner in the race was also recorded. The results showed very high values in the psychological variables analyzed compared with other sports disciplines. Completion of the race (not withdrawing) and the elite quality of the runners were presented as the most relevant indicators in the processes of resilience, mental toughness, and obsessive passion. Differences were noted between the pre- and post-race results, suggesting that the competition itself is a means of training those psychological factors that are essential to this sports discipline. It can be concluded that psychological factors are decisive to athletic performance and race completion in mountain ultra-marathon races.
... "Competitive Performance" in this task was operationalized as the time in seconds that a participant held up her arm before quitting the contest. Holding a weight for time and has been previously and independently validated as a measure of mental toughness, a psychological construct in which competitive persistence is a core feature (Crust & Clough, 2005). Further, performance in the competitive will task has been shown to be significantly and positively related to individual differences in traits having to do with competitiveness and dominance motivation as well as taskspecific desire to win and perceived effort (Casto et al., 2020). ...
... Performance in the task has been positively correlated with trait competitiveness and dominance motivation as well as task-specific desire to win, while being unrelated to body weight and height (Casto et al., 2020). Essentially the same task was employed by Crust and Clough (2005) to provide criterion validity for a measure of "mental toughness," a concept from sport psychology having to do with competitive confidence, resilience, persistence, effective emotional control, and coping with adversity -qualities considered to be among the most important psychological predictors of success in sport (Crust, 2007;Liew et al., 2019). Testosterone-related individual differences in mental toughness could, at least in part, account for individual performance differences in this competitive task. ...
The purpose of this study is to provide a descriptive account of salivary testosterone levels in women in relation to being an athlete, sporting level, competitive context, and oral contraceptive (OC) use and, to explore the relationship between testosterone levels and performance in a task of competitive persistence.Methods
Saliva samples were collected from teams of women athletes at the recreational, collegiate varsity, and elite-international levels, and a university participant-pool sample of athletes and non-athletes (N = 253). Among the elite athletes, additional saliva samples were collected before and after on- and off-field training sessions and competition. University participants competed in a timed weight-holding competition in the laboratory.ResultsTestosterone levels were highest in elite athletes compared to university students (η2 = .07) and were elevated in the context of competitive training (+13–51%) and formal competition (69%) contexts. OC users had significantly lower testosterone levels than non-users (η2 = .14). For university athletes, testosterone levels were positively correlated with performance in a task of competitive persistence (R2 = .23). OC use was associated with lower competitive persistence (d = .42) – a relationship explained by OC users’ lower testosterone levels relative to non-users (d = 1.32).Conclusions
Results suggest that salivary testosterone levels in women may depend on sport participation and OC use, are malleable to competitive contexts, and among athletes, are positively related to competitive task persistence. Given the testosterone suppressing effects of OC use, this study provides insight on psychophysiological risks of OC use that could be relevant to sport performance.
... "Competitive Performance" in this task was operationalized as the time in seconds that a participant held up her arm before quitting the contest. Holding a weight for time and has been previously and independently validated as a measure of mental toughness, a psychological construct in which competitive persistence is a core feature (Crust & Clough, 2005). Further, performance in the competitive will task has been shown to be significantly and positively related to individual differences in traits having to do with competitiveness and dominance motivation as well as task-specific desire to win and perceived effort (Casto et al., 2020). ...
... Performance in the task has been positively correlated with trait competitiveness and dominance motivation as well as taskspecific desire to win, while being unrelated to body weight and height (Casto et al., 2020). Essentially the same task was employed by Crust and Clough (2005) to provide criterion validity for a measure of "mental toughness," a concept from sport psychology having to do with competitive confidence, resilience, persistence, effective emotional control, and coping with adversityqualities considered to be among the most important psychological predictors of success in sport (Crust, 2007;Liew et al., 2019). Testosterone-related individual differences in mental toughness could, at least in part, account for individual performance differences in this competitive task. ...
Objectives: The purpose of this study is to provide a descriptive account of salivary testosterone levels in women in relation to being an athlete, sporting level, competitive context, and oral contraceptive (OC) use and, to explore the relationship between testosterone levels and performance in a task of competitive persistence. Methods: Saliva samples were collected from teams of women athletes at the recreational, collegiate varsity, and international-elite levels, and a university participant-pool sample of athletes and non-athletes. Among the elite athletes, additional saliva samples were collected before and after on-and off-field training sessions and competition. University participants competed in a timed weight-holding competition in the laboratory. Results: Testosterone levels were highest in elite athletes compared to university students (η 2 = .07) and were elevated in the context of competitive training (+13-51%) and formal competition (69%) contexts. OC users had significantly lower testosterone levels than non-users (η 2 = .14). For university athletes, testosterone levels were positively correlated with performance in a task of competitive persistence (R 2 = .23). OC use was associated with lower competitive persistence (d = .42)-a relationship explained by OC users' lower testosterone levels relative to non-users (d = 1.32). Conclusions: Results suggest that salivary testosterone levels in women may depend on sport participation and OC use, are malleable to competitive contexts, and among athletes, are positively related to competitive task persistence. Given the testosterone suppressing effects of OC use, this study provides insight on psychophysiological risks of OC use that could be relevant to sport performance.
... Yet, psychological skills training has been found to buffer the consequences of mistakes, which may enable referees to mediate the negative effects of poor decision-making. (Crust & Azadi, 2010;Crust & Clough, 2005). Studies have shown that a referee with higher EI tends to experience less psychological fatigue (Alam et al., 2012). ...
Officiating is a challenging role within sports that requires many psychological skills as well as emotional intelligence, the ability to recognize and moderate personal emotions and the emotions of others, while simultaneously processing the information to make an informed decision about the present situation. Although many studies have investigated these characteristics within athletes and coaches to improve sports performance, officials overseeing these competitive environments have been largely ignored. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the psychological skills and emotional intelligence of national and international taekwondo referees. Participants were 10 international and 10 national referees who completed four measures of psychological skills and emotional intelligence. National referees scored significantly higher on emotional intelligence and most psychological skills. This was surprising, suggesting either national referees feel more emotionally and psychologically competent perhaps from more regular practice and/or international referees are more self-aware of their limitations and less likely to score themselves highly on a self-report measure. Future research should consider comparison of referees across genders, nationality, levels, sport, and other demographics.
... This was demonstrated in elite kickboxers where those with higher MT also recorded greater power output during countermovement jumps and medicine ball throws (Slimani et al., 2016). Similar positive relationships were found between MT and physical endurance levels in undergraduate sport and exercise science students (Crust & Clough, 2005). Much of the research investigating the relationship between MT and sports performance is focused on elite-athletes and university-aged students, but there is also evidence to support positive associations between MT and performance in adolescent cricket players as well. ...
Mental Toughness (MT) is a critical component of athletic success in sports. Several different scales have been developed to evaluate MT; however, it is unknown which of these is the best measure. Purpose: To systematically review the current research to evaluate the measurement properties of the identified scales and to provide clinical recommendations on the use of the best measure. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted using the following EBSCO databases: CINAHL, MEDLINE, SPORTSDiscus, PsycARTICLES, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, PsycINFO, PsycTESTS and ERIC in May 2019. Another search was conducted in October 2020 to identify new articles that had been published since the initial search. The Consensus-based Standard for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) risk of bias checklist was used to evaluate quality of included studies. Quality appraisal of the reported measurement properties were based upon the COSMIN guidelines for systematic review of patient-reported outcome measures. Results: A total of 36 studies evaluating 15 unique scales were identified through the systematic literature search. Only a single scale, the Mental, Emotional, and Bodily Toughness Inventory (MeBTough) demonstrated acceptable values for all measurement properties. Both the Mental Toughness Index (MTInd) and the 18-item Mental Toughness Questionnaire (MTQ-18) rated sufficient in structural validity, internal consistency, and hypothesis testing domains. Conclusion: Despite the limited quantity of evidence available the MeBTough, MTQ-18, and MTInd appear to be the best rated measures; however, limited reliability data for the MTInd and MTQ-18 are concerns that need to be addressed through future research. Word Count: 249/250
Lay Summary: Assessment of mental toughness (MT) is important because of its relationship with performance and rehabilitation outcomes. Currently only a single scale (i.e., the Mental, Emotional, and Bodily Toughness Inventory [MeBTough]) demonstrated acceptable quality in all categories; however, the Mental Toughness Index (MTInd) and the 18-item mental toughness questionnaire (MTQ-18) are both promising. More data are needed to determine if these three measures are suitable for routine assessment of MT.
• Implications for Practitioners:
• Practitioners should exercise caution when interpreting the results from these measures until additional high-quality data are available.
• The Mental, Emotional, and Bodily Toughness Inventory (MeBTough), the Mental Toughness Index (MTInd) and the 18-item Mental Toughness Questionnaire (MTQ-18) were the highest rated general measures of mental toughness (MT) identified in this systematic review.
... While mental toughness has only received very limited consideration in quantitative studies of ultra-endurance and ultramarathon, previous research has concluded mental toughness to be an important factor for success in mixed martial arts , football (soccer) , tennis , hockey , Australian football , cricket , rugby league , and endurance athletes . Further supporting the expected saliency of mental toughness for ultra-endurance and ultra-marathon competition is evidence that mental toughness components are reported to be higher in individuals who are able to endure physical exertion for longer periods . ...
Minimal research has examined psychological processes underpinning ultra-marathon run-ners' performance. This study examined the relationships between mental toughness and self-efficacy with performance in an elite sample of ultra-marathon runners competing in the 2019 Hawaiian Ultra Running Team's Trail 100-mile endurance run (HURT100). The Mental Toughness Questionnaire (SMTQ) and the Endurance Sport Self-Efficacy Scale (ESSES) were completed by 56 elite ultra-marathon runners in the HURT100 (38 males, 18 females; M age = 38.86 years, SD age = 9.23). Findings revealed mental toughness and self-efficacy are highly related constructs (r(54) = 0.72, p < 0.001). Mental toughness and self-efficacy did not significantly relate to ultra-marathon performance (mental toughness and self-efficacy with Ultra-Trail World Tour (UTWT) rank F(2, 53) = 0.738, p = 0.483; mental toughness and self-efficacy with likelihood would finish the HURT100 χ 2 = 0.56, p = 0.756; mental toughness and self-efficacy with HURT100 placing and time F(2, 53) = 1.738, p = 0.186 and F(2, 30) = 2.046, p = 0.147, respectively). However, participants had significantly and meaningfully higher mental toughness (M = 45.42, SD = 4.26, medium and large effect sizes) than athletes from other sports previously published. Our interpretation is that these results taken in conjunction, suggest a threshold of mental toughness that performers require to be of the standard needed to be able to prepare for and compete in elite ultra-marathon events such as the HURT100; once this mental toughness threshold is met, other factors are likely to be more influential in determining elite level ultra-marathon performance.
... Psychometric testing has been successfully used in the assessment of skill level, injury response, rehabilitation compliance, and stress with various athletic populations (Crust & Clough, 2005;Levy et al., 2006;Meyers et al., 1992;Meyers, Higgs, LeUnes, Bourgeois, & Laurent, 2015;, but to our knowledge, no studies have addressed any form of mood states in relationship to high school-age soccer competitors at the ODP level of play. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine mood states of ODP soccer athletes and quantify possible differences across competitive level and skill position. ...
Journal of Sport Behavior, 2020;43(2):198-213. Athletes at Olympic Developmental Program (ODP) camps experience high levels of expectations and mental and physical challenges in short spans of time. With the increasing emphasis on talent development, ODP staff members have been pressed to clearly define present levels of psychological indices such as mood states, to enhance athletic prediction, maximize training efforts, identify the predisposition to injury, and focus on areas pertinent to successful performance. This study examined mood states of U.S. ODP soccer athletes not previously investigated. Following written informed consent, 80 males completed the Profile of Mood States. Data were analyzed by competitive level (U-14, U-15), and skill position (goalkeeper, defender, midfielder, forward). MANOVA indicated a main effect across competitive level (Wilks' λ F 6,73 = 3.101; p = .007; n-β = .923) but no significant effect by skill position (Wilks' λ F 2,73 = 0.883; p = .614; n-β = .648). Post hoc analyses indicated that U-15 athletes scored significantly higher in vigor (p = .0001), but significantly lower in tension (p = .016), depression (p = .027), anger (p = .008), fatigue (p = .011), confusion (p = .042), and total mood disturbance (p = .001) than U-14 competitors. In conclusion, older, more experienced athletes revealed more positive mood states than younger, less experienced athletes, although athletes in attacking positions (midfielders, forwards) did not exhibit more positive mood states than those positions requiring reaction and protection (goalkeepers, defenders).
... Zihinsel dayanıklılığın performans üzerinde olumlu bir etkiye sahip olduğu ve antrenörlerin zihinsel dayanıklılık gelişiminde kilit bir rol oynadığına inanılmakta ve sporcuların zihinsel dayanıklılık düzeylerinin yüksek olması sportif başarı, zor durumlara karşı rekabet edebilme (Kaiseler vd., 2009) ve yüksek ağrı eşiği ile doğrudan ilişkili olduğu ifade edilmektedir (Crust ve Clough, 2005). ...
Bu çalışmada, Kadın Süper Lig hentbolcularının zihinsel dayanıklılık ve hedef yönelimi becerilerinin bazı değişkenlere göre incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Bu değişkenler sporcuların oynadıkları mevkiler ve spor yaşları olarak belirlenmiştir. Takım oyunu olan hentbol için bireyde ego ve görev yönelimi düzeyinin oldukça önemli olduğundan; sporcunun kendisi mi yoksa takımı için mi mücadele ettiğini belirlemek öncelikli amaçlarımızdandır. Bunun yanı sıra tempolu, uzun süre oynanan ve sert bir spor olan hentbol için anlık gelişen durumlar karşısında problem ile başa çıkma, fiziksel-zihinsel olarak dayanıklı kalabilmekte oldukça önemlidir. Araştırma örneklemini 2020-2021 sezonu içerisinde toplam 147 kadın süper lig hentbol sporcusu oluşturmuştur. Kişisel bilgi formunda çalışmaya katılan sporcuların mevkileri ve spor yaşına yönelik bilgi toplanmıştır. İkinci bölümünde “Sporda Zihinsel Dayanıklılık Envanteri” ve “Sporda Görev ve Ego Yönelimi Ölçeği kullanılmıştır. Anketlerde değişkenler arası karşılaştırmalarda ve elde edilen verilerin analizinde SPSS paket programından Tek Yönlü Varyans Analizi tekniği kullanılmıştır. Çalışma sonucunda hedef yönelimleri düzeyinde tecrübeli diye adlandırabileceğimiz spor yaşı yüksek olan hentbol oyuncularının, spor yaşı daha düşük olanlara göre daha görev yönelimli oldukları saptanmıştır. Aynı zamanda katılımcıların spor yaşlarının arttıkça zihinsel dayanıklılık düzeylerinin de arttığı gözlemlenirken mevki değişkenine göre her iki parametre adına anlamlı farklılıklara rastlanmamıştır.
In this study, it was aimed to examine the mental toughness and goal orientation skills of female Super League handball players according to some variables. These variables were determined as the positions played by the athletes and the age of the sports. Since the level of ego and task orientation of the athlete is very important for handball, which is a team game; It is one of our primary goals to determine whether the athlete is struggling for herself or for his team. In addition to this, it is very important for handball, which is a fast-paced, long-played and hard sport, to cope with the problem in the face of instantaneous situations and to remain physically-mentally tough. The research sample consisted of a total of 147 female super league handball players in the 2020-2021 season. In the personal information form, information about the positions and sports ages of the athletes participating in the study was collected. In the second part, "Sport Mental Toughness Questionnaire in Sports" and "Task and Ego Orientation Scale in Sports" were used. One-Way Analysis of Variance technique from the SPSS package program was used in the comparisons between the variables in the questionnaires and
the analysis of the data obtained. As a result of the study, it was found that handball players with higher sports age, which we can name as an experienced at the level of goal orientation, are more task-oriented than those with lower sports age players. At the same time, it was observed that as the sports age of the participants increased, the level of mental toughness increased, while no significant differences were found for both parameters according to the position variable.
... 3 In sports literature, mental toughness is well established and has been shown to relate to improved pain tolerance, 4 problem-/task-oriented coping, 5 use of psychologic coping strategies 6,7 and an enhanced ability to prevent unwanted information from interfering with current goals. 8 Mental toughness is seen as an asset in many fields, including athletics, 1,2,9 military and police forces, 10 and business. 11 Many of these areas have dedicated training to help develop mental toughness. ...
Mental toughness is crucial to high-level performance in stressful situations. However, there is no formal evaluation or training in mental toughness in surgery. Our objective was to examine differences in mental toughness between staff and resident surgeons, and whether there is an interest in improving this attribute.
We distributed a survey containing the Mental Toughness Index (domains of self-belief, attention regulation, emotion regulation, success mindset, context knowledge, buoyancy, optimism and adversity capacity) among general surgery residents and staff at 3 Canadian academic institutions. Responses were recorded on a 7-point Likert scale. Participants were also asked about techniques they used to help them perform under pressure and interest in further developing mental toughness.
Eighty-three of 193 surgeons participated: 56/105 (52.8%) residents and 27/87 (31.0%) staff. The average age was 29 (standard deviation 5) years and 42 (standard deviation 8) years, respectively. Residents scored significantly lower than staff in all mental toughness domains. Men scored significantly higher than women in attention regulation and emotion regulation. Age, staff experience and resident postgraduate year were not significantly associated with mental toughness scores. Twenty residents (36%) and 17 staff (63%) reported using specific techniques to deal with stressful situations; 49 (88%) and 15 (56%), respectively, were interested in further developing mental toughness.
Staff surgeons scored significantly higher than residents in all mental toughness domains measured. Both groups expressed a desire to improve mental toughness. There are many techniques to improve mental toughness, and further research is needed to assess their effectiveness in surgical training.
... 18) in which mental toughness is defined as a "state-like psychological resource that is purposeful, flexible, and efficient in nature for the enactment and maintenance of goaldirected pursuits." Mental toughness has been previously associated with enhanced physiological endurance (Crust & Clough, 2005) and adaptive responses to negative feedback (Clough, Earle, & Sewell, 2002). Mental toughness has also been shown to differentiate international rugby league players from their less-elite counterparts (Golby & Sheard, 2004), high-and low-skilled bowlers (Thomas, Schlinker, & Over, 1996), batters in cricket (Weissensteiner, Abernethy, Farrow, & Gross, 2012), and high-and low-performing cross-country athletes (J. ...
Previously, investigators have sought to clarify the role of psychological factors in the development of expertise across numerous sport domains; however, almost no empirical work exists on winter sport athletes. Using a retrospective design, we examined associations between psychological traits, engagement in practice-related activities, and performance among sub-elite level, youth alpine skiers. A total of 169 skiers (88 women) enrolled at professional development academies in the United States completed a battery of questionnaires assessing practice history profiles and performance milestones, as well as various psychological factors (e.g., mental toughness, grit, perfectionism). Performance was assessed using national ranking across both speed and technical disciplines. In addition to linear models and MANOVA/MANCOVA tests, linear mixed-effect regressions were utilized to assess relationships between psychological factors, practice hours, and ranking over time. Higher scores on perfectionistic strivings (personal standards) were associated with improved performance. Also, grit was associated with increased engagement in individual practice hours. Coach-led one-on-one practice hours were associated with increased perfectionistic concerns (e.g., parental pressure), while indirect exposure (e.g., attending events without competing) was associated with decreased mental toughness. Findings highlight potentially important associations between athletes’ dispositional characteristics, prolonged ski engagement, and performance trajectory.
... The testretest coefficient has been measured as 0.9 (Clough et al., 2002). Further, internal consistency of the four subscales were measured by Crust and Clough (2005). The scores are: .73, ...
Introduction: Wushu, Chinese martial art, consists of modern and traditional groups of styles. Previously it was researched that modern and traditional martial arts have different outcomes. Since traditional wushu is said to be rooted in Chinese values, its environment is a unique place to research psychological collectivism. Moreover, mental toughness is a new topic in the field of martial arts, and its connection with psychological collectivism was only researched on the society, not personality level. Methods: This mixed methods research consisted of qualitative Study 1 and quantitative Study 2. Study 1 aimed to understand, what is the experience of psychological collectivism in traditional wushu training. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight European adult participants of traditional wushu and were analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. In the Study 2, 277 European adult respondents (111 modern wushu and 166 traditional wushu practitioners) filled in the Sport Mental Toughness Questionnaire and Psychological Collectivism Questionnaire. To research the relationship of practicing modern or traditional wushu with psychological collectivism and mental toughness, several steps were taken. First, the Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis were run to test both models. Next, the final model was tested using Structural Equation Modelling. Model comparisons, path analysis and effects were completed. Results: In Study 1, five themes emerged from the data. The first described how kung fu (traditional wushu) provided structure and direction for the interviewees. Also, it described how practitioners better adapted to the outer world and their ability to switch from being gentle to being ruthless. The second theme described perception of time. The third one explored the kung fu community, provided a probe into the group identity, and looked at how positioning closer to the master provided better learning options; the community served as the knowledge keeper. The fourth theme explored bridging gaps in communication. Finally, the fifth theme discovered seriousness of the practitioners, who had to endure mentally and physically torturous training. In Study 2, during the structural equation modeling the final model was confirmed as well as differences in the two groups of modern and traditional wushu. Moreover, it was found, that the number of joined competitions or years of training did not result in a significant path with mental toughness, but perceived level of skill did. The relationship between psychological collectivism and mental toughness was found only in the traditional wushu group, limited to a marginal p level. Conclusion: Psychological collectivism was explored in traditional wushu and helped to understand the structure and functioning of the wushu community. The seriousness of its members served as a commodity, to negotiate better position in the group. In the quantitative study, this seriousness seemed to be connected with the perceived level of skill. This variable resulted in the significant path with mental toughness. It is suggested that the social environment of the serious practitioners, who put themselves through demanding training, helped to develop mental toughness. This development is not based on the number of years in training, but rather on the way the practitioners perceive themselves.
... Keywords mental toughness; adolescents; age; community size; confidence; commitment; challenge; control Early researchers on mental toughness (MT) identified this concept as a set of attributes associated with successful sporting performance. Alongside psychological advantages (e.g., increased optimism and effective coping; Nicholls, Polman, Levy, & Backhouse, 2008), MT is associated with physiological benefits (i.e., increased physical endurance and heightened pain tolerance; Crust & Clough, 2005). Fundamentally, MT moderates the effects of stress, helps with regaining balance after failure, and promotes mobilizing action, especially when risks and challenges are involved (Crust & Keegan, 2010). ...
Scholars have reported that mental toughness (MT) moderates stress, helps with regaining balance after failure, and promotes mobilizing action. Accordingly, we used the Mental Toughness Questionnaire-48 to explore stage-related MT differences in a sample of 342 teenagers representing 3 stages of adolescence: 11-year-olds (early adolescence; n = 104), 14-year-olds (middle adolescence; n = 125), and 17-year-olds (late adolescence; n = 113), who came from either a large city or a small town. Analysis revealed that although MT increased across the stages of adolescence, the degree of change varied between subscales of the Mental Toughness Questionnaire-48: challenge and confidence increased, whereas control and commitment remained unchanged. Moreover, age effects also varied as a function of community size. The findings illustrate the advantage of using a multi-dimensional model of toughness for better understanding its development processes. Moreover, they could inform the design of training programs aimed at targeting problem behaviors, for example, encouraging attendance at and enhancing academic performance programs.
... However, some of these findings seem tentative to say the least. For example, Crust and Clough (2005) found a positive relationship between mental toughness and physical endurance in that, higher levels of mental toughness led to longer times of holding a weight at arm's length. Furthermore, Gucciardi et al. (2015) examined the relationship between mental toughness and performance in the workplace as well as a military environment. ...
This thesis investigates the relationship of both trait and state explanations of Mental
Toughness (MT) upon a range of behavioural and psychophysiological outcome variables
that should relate to the construct of MT (e.g., performance, heart rate, muscle activity,
kinematic movement, and cortisol).
Chapter 1 presents a holistic overview of the strengths and limitations of research in
MT and offers some novel approaches that could advance knowledge in this area. The
introduction briefly explains different concepts that relate to the construct of MT. The
strengths and limitations of trait (personality) and state (self-report) perspectives of MT are
reviewed. Finally, future outcome variables that should be theoretically related to MT that
have yet to be fully explored are discussed. This discussion sets out in detail, the purpose of
Chapter 2 aimed to advance previous research findings where personality traits (i.e.,
low reward and high punishment sensitivities) have been shown to predict Mentally Tough
behaviour (MTb) and performance outcomes under pressure (e.g., Beattie, Alqallaf, & Hardy,
2017; Hardy, Bell, & Beattie, 2014). As suggested in the research overview from Chapter 1,
these individuals may demonstrate unique psychophysiological response to stress that allow
them to tolerate higher levels of pressure than their less mentally tough counterparts.
Therefore, we hypothesized that individuals high in punishment and low in reward
sensitivities (and those high in self-report MT) would show little or no increase in heart rate,
and show stable muscle activity and movement kinematics from low-stress to high-stress
conditions, compared to less mentally tough individuals. The stress condition involved
participants making a single putt where they could double or lose all the money they had
earned up to that point. Results indicated that, when reward sensitivity was low and
punishment sensitivity increased, heart rate reactivity was blunted and movement kinematics (club-head angle) were more consistent when transitioning from a low to high stress
environment. However, no significant relationships were found between self-report levels of
MT, psychophysiological and movement kinematic measures.
Chapter 3 addressed some of the limitations from Chapter 2. Specifically, the stress
manipulation was modified to provide participants with early warning of the stressor, and,
therefore, more time to prepare. The stress manipulation was also intensified by removing
money from participants for missed putts, and adding peer pressure by having participants
complete the experiment in pairs. We also extended the psychophysiological approach from
Chapter 2 by examining cortisol. Results regarding personality and heart rate differed slightly
from Chapter 2. Importantly, with early warning of the stressor, personality no longer
predicted heart rate reactivity, but it did predict preparatory heart rate deceleration, an index
of motor preparation. Preparatory heart rate deceleration was disrupted on transition from
low-stress to high-stress conditions, but when reward sensitivity was low, increasing
punishment sensitivity was associated with more consistent deceleration across both low-
stress and high-stress conditions. Moreover, when reward sensitivity was low, increasing
punishment sensitivity was associated with less angular error (better performance). Finally,
contrary to our hypothesis, cortisol increased from the high stress condition to the low stress
Chapter 4 draws upon studies of early versus late preparation, and prevention versus
promotion focus, to account for the subtly different results across Chapter 2 and Chapter 3. In
doing so, it discusses the theoretical and applied implications of the thesis. Limitations and
strengths of the thesis are discussed and future research directions are proposed.
... This study aimed to recognize the contribution of mental toughness in competitive behavior among swimmers, the study was conducted on a sample of (12) male and (14) female from the Jordanian national swimmers team, to collect data was used mental toughness scale for (James Loehr, 1986) and competitive behavior scale for (Harris, 1984), The results showed that mental toughness has a relation with the competitive behavior and have a high percentage contribution (90%) in it among Jordanian swimmers, the researcher recommended to وكولف كريسن أشار يث (Crust & Clough, 2005 :التالية المستقلة للمتغيراا ( و ،االتجلاه وتحكلم ،بلالافس الثقلة ال مقيلاس الكللي ل العقلية لصالبة ) المستقلة المتغيراا مساهمة نسبة وأن بلغن ( 90 % ) ...
12 (و لباو حل) 14) (ملل ة لبا حل ا وتم ،األردني ر المات العقلية الصالبة مقياس دام حت ل للوهر جيمس (James Loehr, 1986) ، لي التااسسل للو السل لاس ومقيل لاريس هل لي ل دور لد لل Harris, 1984)) ال لال نتل لارا وأشل ، لث بحل ن ل بل العقلية للصالبة (بلغن سيه الية باسبة وحاهمن التااسسي السلو سي القة 90%) ي حلبا للدى ث البا وأوصى ،األردني ر المات اا وحبا اال بالجوانلر ب أحلو (ي للسلبا الافسي بالجانر هتمام لملا العقلية الصالبة مستوى لتعزيز التدريبية داا الو سي والمعرسية ططية وال والمهارية البدنية .المااسساا ااء أ اإليجابي السلو لى ر أ لها :المفتاحية الكلمات الصال .(ي السبا ،التااسسي السلو ،العقلية بة Abstract This study aimed to recognize the contribution of mental toughness in competitive behavior among swimmers, the study was conducted on a sample of (12) male and (14) female from the Jordanian national swimmers team, to collect data was used mental toughness scale for (James Loehr, 1986) and competitive behavior scale for (Harris, 1984), The results showed that mental toughness has a relation with the competitive behavior and have a high percentage contribution (90%) in it among Jordanian swimmers, the researcher recommended to
... While MT benefits psychological well-being and health ( Jin & Wang, 2016 ;Stamp et al., 2015 ) such as lowered perceived stress ( Gerber et al., 2018( Gerber et al., , 2015Haghighi & Gerber, 2019 ) and anxiety levels ( Gucciardi & Jones, 2012 ;Haghighi & Gerber, 2019 ;Malhotra & Kaur, 2017 ), the role of MT in explaining the stress-anxiety relationship has not been well-established. MT functions as a stress buffer to alter one's perception and response to stress ( Clough et al., 2002 ;Crust & Clough, 2005 ;Gucciardi et al., 2008 ). On this basis, literature has Does MT moderate and mediate the stress-anxiety relationship differently between athletes and non-athletes? ...
The purpose of the current study was to examine the moderation and mediation effects of mental toughness (MT) on the relationship between perceived stress and anxiety, and to test whether such effects are stronger in athletes than non-athletes. The sample consisted of 320 students (160 athletes, 160 non-athletes) from Nanyang Technological University. Multiple hierarchical analyses showed that MT moderated this relationship only in non-athletes, and partially mediated this relationship in both athletes and non-athletes. Moreover, mediation was found to be stronger in athletes; MT accounted for a substantially greater variance in anxiety outcome in athletes (82%) than non-athletes (33%), highlighting the importance of MT as a stress buffer pathway to lower anxiety. Additional variable control analyses revealed that training years did not benefit MT effects, suggesting that practice quality or competition level might be more critical in MT development. This study presents novel findings on the moderation and mediation perspective of MT on the perceived stress-anxiety relationship, which provides a more comprehensive foundation for future MT interventions using sports.
... We also found that physical endurance was significantly associated with task-rest distinction in the working memory and language tasks, both of which involved sustained concentration. Physical endurance is closely related to mental toughness (Crust & Clough, 2005), thereby explaining why individuals low on endurance may have "given-up" earlier in such tasks leading to deteriorating engagement over time, reflected by weaker modulation of FC dynamics. Therefore, intelligence, task performance, stress, aggression, alertness, and endurance, among others significantly contribute to interindividual variation in the discriminability between task and rest based on functional connectivity dynamics, after the removal of mean task activation. ...
Behavioral traits are rarely considered in task-evoked functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, yet these traits can affect how an individual engages with the task, and thus lead to heterogeneity in task-evoked brain responses. We aimed to investigate whether interindividual variation in behavior associates with the accuracy of predicting task-evoked changes in the dynamics of functional brain connectivity measured with functional MRI. We developed a novel method called multi-timepoint pattern analysis (MTPA), in which binary logistic regression classifiers were trained to distinguish rest from each of 7 tasks (i.e., social cognition, working memory, language, relational, motor, gambling, emotion) based on functional connectivity dynamics measured in 1,000 healthy adults. We found that connectivity dynamics for multiple pairs of large-scale networks enabled individual classification between task and rest with accuracies exceeding 70%, with the most discriminatory connections relatively unique to each task. Crucially, interindividual variation in classification accuracy significantly associated with several behavioral, cognition and task performance measures. Classification between task and rest was generally more accurate for individuals with higher intelligence and task performance. Additionally, for some of the tasks, classification accuracy improved with lower perceived stress, lower aggression, higher alertness, and greater endurance. We conclude that heterogeneous dynamic adaptations of functional brain networks to changing cognitive demands can be reliably captured as linearly separable patterns by MTPA. Future studies should account for interindividual variation in behavior when investigating context-dependent dynamic functional connectivity.
... Furthermore, mental toughness is often associated with unshakeable self-belief, the ability to rebound after failures, persistence or refusal to quit, coping effectively with adversity and pressure, and retaining concentration in the face of many potential distractions (Liew et al., 2019). Research has shown that mental toughness is associated with better athletic performance (Crust & Clough, 2005) and a higher performance level (Gucciardi & Gordon, 2009). Accordingly, we assume that mentally tough athletes are better able to deal with the challenges of an endurance task and are motivated to push themselves to their limits. ...
Endurance athletes attribute performance not only to physiological factors, but also refer to psychological factors such as motivation. The goal of this study was to quantify the proportion of the variance in endurance performance that is explained by psychological factors in addition to the physiological factor VO2max. Twenty-five athletes of the U17 Swiss Cycling national team (7f, 18 m, 15.3 ± 0.5 years) were examined in a cross-sectional study with psychological factors and VO2max as independent variables and endurance performance in road cycling as dependent variable. Questionnaires were used to assess psychological factors (i.e., use of mental techniques, self-compassion, mental toughness, achievement motivation, and action vs. state orientation). VO2max was measured by a step incremental cycle ergometer test of exhaustion. Endurance performance was measured in a cycling mountain time trial (1,320 m long, incline of 546 meters). A multiple regression model was created by using forward selection of regression model predictors. Results showed that higher VO2max values (β = .48), being male (β = .26), and higher achievement motivation (i.e., perseverance, β = .11) were associated with a better endurance performance. A more frequent use of one particular mental technique (i.e., relaxation techniques, β = .03) was associated with a worse endurance performance. Our study shows that a physiological factor like VO2max explains endurance performance to a large extent but psychological factors account for additional variance. In particular, one aspect of achievement motivation, namely perseverance, was associated with a better endurance performance.
... However, it is difficult to reach an agreement and make progress with the MTQ48 because of the multimodal framework presented by Clough, Earle , i.e. competing one-, four-and six-factor variants. Although there is a great deal of research confirming the trustworthiness of the scale, but less validity, it is evident that the questionnaire assesses certain elements of consistent custom [22,35,36]. On the other hand, what it evaluates seems theoretically vast [15,28,31]. ...
The use of structural equation models (SEM) in scientific research perform a promising methodological and empirical direction to validate the measurement of psychological constructs. The aim of this paper is to validate the measurement of mental toughness of athletes and non-athletes with SEM. The sample consisted of 853 Tunisian participants (444 males and 409 females; 409 athletes and 444 non-athletes), aged 14 to 27 years (M=20.38 SD=4.12). The sample completed the Arabic translated questionnaire of Clough, Earle  which measures six components of their mental toughness. The SEM approved a good model fit (χ ² =1146.33; df =1065; CFI=.93; SRMR=.063; RMSEA=.009) which allows for a valid Arabic-speaking measure of the six components of mental toughness.
... Accordingly, the concept of mental toughness and psychological skills is considered to be multidimensional (cognitive, affective, and behavioral) and to have dynamics associated with psychological performance strategies in terms of successful sports performance (Bull et al., 2005;Clough et al., 2002. ; Connaughton et al., 2008;Crust & Clough, 2005;Jones et al., 2007). Psychological performance strategies that have many different scales are considered to have a relation to mental toughness. ...
Objectives The aim of this research is to examine the relationship between performance strategies and mental toughness in team and individual sports of young adult athletes. Methods This research was conducted with a sample of athletes active in various teams and clubs in Antalya. In this study, 249 athletes participated (xĀge: 23.62 + 4.466), 44.6% (n = 111) of them were female and 55.4% (n = 138) were male athletes. The data collection tools included ''Sports Mental Toughness Questionnaire-SMTQ-14'', ''The Test of Performance Strategies Questionnaire (TOPS)'', and '' Personal Information Form'' prepared for the purpose of the research. Furthermore, Independent sample T-test, One-way ANOVA and Pearson correlation analysis were used in this study. The analyzes were made in the IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), and the significance level in the research was p <0.05. Results A significant difference was found in imagery and activation sub-scales in terms of team and individual sports variables. In addition, in terms of the branch, gender, and experience variables, it was found that the scores of goal setting, imagery, activation, self-talk, attentional control, relaxation, emotional control, automaticity, confidence, control, and constancy did not differ significantly. Conclusions As a result, it was found that both mental toughness and performance strategies did not differ in terms of branch, gender, and experience variables. The results of the study related to psychological performance strategies and differentiation of mental toughness contradict with the relevant literature. However, there is a low positive correlation between mental toughness and psychological performance strategies. The skill of self-talk positively affects constancy, confidence, and control of mental toughness.
... The 48 items were rated by participants on a 5point Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). The MTQ48 has high overall test-retest reliability ranging from 0.80 to 0.90 as reported in previous studies by Clough et al. (2002), Crust and Clough (2005), and as corroborated by Middleton et al. (2004). The 5point Likert scale data were transformed to linear Percentage of Maximum Possible (POMP) scores as recommended by Cohen et al. (1999). ...
Mental toughness is a psychological construct related to successful performance in academics, management, and sports among other sectors. However, studies on the determinants of mental toughness with respect to different human endeavours have remained inconclusive. This study explored mental toughness characteristics of male university athletes in selected sports in relation to contextual factors of athletes’ age, playing experience, year of study, and the type of sport. The Mental Toughness Questionnaire (MTQ48) was used to collect data from male university athletes (n = 140). Results of this study showed significant difference in the following components of MT: lower scores in challenge (p = .015), emotional control (p = .005), and life control (p = .002) among athletes with shorter playing experience, and higher scores in life control (p < .001), emotional control (p = .021), and confidence in abilities (p = .009) in handball as compared to soccer players. Soccer players had significantly higher scores in the challenge component (p = .038) of mental toughness as compared to handball players. It was concluded that playing experience and the type of sport influenced characteristics of mental toughness among university athletes. Coaches, trainers, and sports psychologists need to consider these contextual factors to optimize mental toughness of athletes. Future studies should explore how specific contextual factors influence training environments and outcomes, as well as how stakeholders can leverage on the relationships between playing experience, the type of sport and mental toughness to augment athletes’ mental toughness and sports performance.
... Notably, in education, health , occupational  and sport  settings. These findings, concomitant with performance on criterion measures [e.g., lower ratings of exertion, [see 1]; physical endurance, suggest that the 4C model is a valid conceptualisation of mental toughness . ...
A special role in the study of personal security problems is played by the study of psychological stability and mental toughness, the development of which involves the ability of a person to focus on one occupation without dispersing their forces, the ability to bring any business started to completion, overcoming the fear of the new, an adequate attitude to their mistakes, the ability to think in a positive way, resistance to force-majeure situations and the ability do not give in to impulses, stress resistance and other qualities. In the article, the authors proposed a Mental Toughness Questionnaire. The 18-item Mental Toughness Questionnaire (MTQ18) is a brief, widely used measure of mental toughness. The MTQ18 derives from the longer MTQ48, which comprises four independent but correlated factors (Challenge, Commitment, Control and Confidence). Despite sampling items from across MTQ48 dimensions, the MTQ18 (as intended) provides a global, unidimensional score. The current paper translated the MTQ18 into Russian, and consequently assessed validity and reliability (factorial, internal and convergent) in a general population sample of 1150 participants (432 male and 718 female). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) revealed the MTQ18 possessed additional variance to that accounted for by a unidimensional solution. Moreover, analyses via exploratory structural equation modelling demonstrated better data-model fit for a four-factor model than CFA. However, factors of Control and Challenge demonstrated inconsistent item loadings. Tests of convergent validity revealed the MTQ18 correlated with theoretically related measures. Overall, although the MTQ18 was a psychometrically acceptable measure, issues with factorial structure require reconciliation in future research.
... Additionally, we tried to give a categorisation of players psychological abilities according to their age . Taking into account previous studies where better cognitive and motor skills are related to increased levels of mental toughness [44,45], we hypothesised that: the psychological performance in youth categories, and the mental toughness in this case, would be greater in all dimensions as age and category increased, having its greatest expression in semi-professional football players. ...
Within the determining factors of psychological performance, mental toughness is considered a multidimensional factor, comprising cognitive, affective, and behavioural components together with self-confidence, which is related to success in sports performance as well as psychological health and well-being. The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between different factors composing mental toughness and age categories in young football players, in order to determine the presence of specific psychological skills in their formative progression. A total of 118 male players (16.91 ± 2.42 years old) completed the Spanish version by Cernuda (1988) of the original Psychological Performance Inventory (PPI) by Loher (1982, 1986). The results indicated significant differences in four variables (negative energy control, attention control, visual and image control, motivational level) on three different age categories, where the U19 category showed the best results for all the variables, decreasing afterwards in the semi-professional category. Significant correlations were established between mental toughness variables and age categories, where the age category variable was significantly correlated in a positive way with attention control, visual and image control, and motivational level. In the same line, the variable self-confidence correlated positively with negative energy control, attention control, motivational level, attention control, and positive energy. The assessment of psychological variables such as mental toughness, taking into account the formative stage, may be helpful for both coaches and players when selecting adequate mental skill training for improving competitive performance and sporting success, as well as for positive and healthy psychological development and well-being.
... It is possible the skills underlying the PPIs overlapped with those used in MT, as it too, aims to enable psychological resources to support positive functioning Lin et al., 2017;Papageorgiou et al., 2019). As MT is correlated with life satisfaction, it may also tap onto perceptions relative to this factor (i.e., Crust & Clough, 2005;Dagnall et al., 2019;Gerber et al., 2013;Marchant et al., 2009). It is even possible that the pandemic, rather than our program, brought forward the skills of MT. ...
Positive psychology interventions hold great promise as schools around the world look to increase the wellbeing of young people. To reach this aim, a program was developed to generate positive emotions, as well as improve life satisfaction, mental toughness and perceptions of school kindness in 538 expatriate students in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Starting in September 2019, the program included a range of positive psychology interventions such as gratitude, acts of kindness and mental contrasting as examples. Life satisfaction and mental toughness at mid-year were sustained or grew by the end of the year. Positive affect, emotional wellbeing and social wellbeing increased at post-intervention 1, compared to baseline. However, this improvement reverted to baseline levels at post-intervention 2, when data were collected during the COVID-19 pandemic. Only psychological wellbeing, negative affect, perceptions of control, and school kindness were increased at post-intervention 2. During the lockdown, students moved less, but slept and scrolled more. Those who extended their sleep duration reported greater wellbeing. Boosting wellbeing through the use of positive psychology interventions works – even in a pandemic – and extended sleep duration appears to be a driving factor for this observation.
... However, because of the multi-dimensional nature (cognitive, affective and behavioural components) of the construct, it is difficult to arrive at a common or shared understanding. (Bull, Shambrook, James and Brooks, 2005;Crust and Clough, 2005) Having said this, it didn't discourage researchers from exploring this construct. A shelf full of studies shows the use of several designs such as experimental, correlational, and exploratory design in studying MT and its related attributes across the globe. ...
In the recent past, sports scientists believe that both mental and physical skills are necessary to reach peak performance in sports. Since then several studies have been done to understand the various psychological attributes determining the athletes` success. This study focus on identifying different psychological strategies that the athletes use during both competition and practice and also to evaluate the effects of mental toughness and positivity in using these psychological strategies. There were 68 (33 males and 35 females, mean age = 18.8, SD= 2.07), after removing the outliers, who took part in this study and are currently completing at various levels from international to the collegiate level in either individual and team sports. The participants completed scales measuring sports mental toughness (SMTQ), positivity (P scale) and various performance strategies used during competition and practice (TOPS). Results were statistically analyzed using person correlation and linear regression, and it revealed that mental toughness and positivity correlates to 8 performance strategies including self-talk, goal setting, imagery, activation, negative thinking, relaxation, attention control and automaticity. And it was also found that athletes in individual sports scored high on mental toughness, positivity and are more likely to use automaticity and imagery to enhance their performance compared to athletes engaged in team sports. Practical implications of this study can include incorporating mental skills for sports performance such as mental toughness and orienting the athletes about various psychological strategies related to peak performance.
Students moving to university can experience a challenging transition; potentially leading to an unhealthy lifestyle, e.g., inadequate physical activity and poor diet. Individual differences are proposed to influence adherence to healthy lifestyle choices. One individual difference relating to healthy lifestyle adherence which has not yet been explored is mental toughness. Mental toughness is a psychological determinant of how challenges and stressors are approached regardless of prevailing circumstances, and mentally tough individuals display commitment and control over stressful life events. This trait is beneficial for coping as high mentally tough individuals face challenges or new environments with confidence and as an opportunity to develop, not as a threat. Entering the unfamiliar environment of higher education has been reported to be a stressful and challenging life event. Therefore the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between mental toughness and adherence to a healthy lifestyle in university students. Following ethical approval, undergraduate students in the United kingdom completed online questionnaires assessing mental toughness (MTQ48), psychological wellbeing (Psychological well-being questionnaire), physical activity (IPAQ-SF), barriers to exercise (EBBS), eating identity (EITI) and lifestyle changes since attending university. Participants with greater mental toughness displayed greater control and commitment towards healthy lifestyle decisions. Pearson’s bivariate correlations revealed a significant and positive relationship between mental toughness and vigorous exercise (p = 0.011). Correlations between mental toughness and healthy eating identity was found to be significant and positive (P = 0.01). A significant and negative correlation was identified between mental toughness and barriers to exercise (P < 0.001). Multiple linear regression revealed mental toughness accounts for 14% of variance in exercise barriers, possibly due to the increased tolerance to pain during exercise in those who have a higher mental toughness. Mental toughness predicts 11% of variance in healthy eating identity. This may be due those with a higher mental toughness possessing greater emotional control, thus less reliant on unhealthy fatty food to relieve stress. Mental toughness assessment can be used as a potential screening tool for identifying students at risk of adopting unhealthy lifestyles. Suitable recommendations could be offered to those students to enhance adherence to healthy lifestyle choices through developing mental toughness.
The purpose of this research was to determine strategies National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) head coaches use to develop mental toughness within collegiate team settings. Fifteen NCAA Division I head coaches (11 men; 4 women) participated in semi-structured interviews. Coaches came from team sports consisting of men’s and women’s soccer, men’s and women’s basketball, softball and baseball. The most consistently cited themes included: (a) establishing a coach–athlete relationship, mentioned by all 15 coaches, (b) establishing and enforcing a culture, addressed by 12 coaches, and (c) pressure activities and training, which was cited by 12 coaches. Additional strategies included using resources, mental skills training, using data, recruiting and use of classroom time. These findings broaden what is known in terms of mental toughness development by coaches at the collegiate level. Future work is needed on the effectiveness of such strategies as being most helpful to team sport athletes in collegiate settings.
There is an increasing awareness that higher education (HE) institutions face significant challenges in managing and supporting students as they transition into university life. If HE institutions struggle to achieve this important aim, this can lead to an increase in student drop-out. This can of course present significant financial implications and challenges and worse still, result in mental health challenges in students. The concept of Mental Toughness (MT) has been shown in a substantial number of investigations, to develop our understanding of why some people might be more vulnerable to these pressures than others. Importantly, it provides both a means of identifying those people and insights about ways they can be best supported. This chapter proposes a well-researched MT framework to facilitate and support universities with these challenges and highlights three key strategies for managing this successfully.
The objective of this study is to examine the mediator role of family support in the relation between continuous anxiety and mental toughness in athletes. The research group was composed of 236 athletes (AgeMean: 20,83 + 2,787) in total, 120 of whom were females (Age Mean : 20,32 + 1,515) and 116 of whom were males (AgeMean: 21,38 + 3,591), who were actively dealing with sports. The participant athletes initially filled the voluntary participation forms, which were prepared by the researchers, and then they filled the data collection tools determined within the framework of the study. In order for the collection of data, Multi-Dimensional Social Support Scale, Mental Toughness Scale, and continuous anxiety sub-scale of State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were used. In the preparation process of the data collected, it was observed that 14 participant athletes filled the scales erroneously, and the analyses were evaluated based on 236-athlete sample. In the analysis of the data, in order to determine the relations among the variables, firstly, Pearson correlation analysis was conducted, as per determining the mediator role of the family support between continuous anxiety and mental toughness, PROCESS macro regression analysis was conducted. For testing whether the mediator role was significant, Sobel z test was used. The analyses were conducted in 95% confidence interval. For the analyses of the research, SPSS 22.00 package program was used. When the findings of the research are examined, it is observed that the continuous anxiety levels of the athletes have a negative linear relation with both the family support and mental toughness. Moreover, as the main hypothesis of the research, according to the findings regarding mediator role of the family support in relation between continuous anxiety and mental toughness, it was determined that the negative effect of continuous anxiety on mental toughness was decreased with family support and its negative effect was decreased. As the conclusion, it can be stated that mental toughness levels of the athletes have a negative relation with their continuous anxiety levels, and that family support can be benefited in decreasing the role of the continuous anxiety concerning the mental toughness performance.
Mental Toughness (MT) is a crucial factor for super-elite athletes "Olympians", since differences in physical and technical competences are minimal at the professional level. A sample of 28 Egyptian male weightlifters (14 elite & 14 non-elite) and 11 female (9 elite & 9 non-elite) were selected to study the differences between the Egyptian elite and non-elite weightlifters. Also determine of the relationship between MT and the level of achievement was targeted. Participants completed the Mental Toughness Questionnaire (MTQ) evaluating an individual's competitive desire, focus, self-confidence, and resiliency (4 subscales). T-test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used for data analysis. MT of elite was significant than non-elite weightlifters (p < 0.05, 2-tailed). Subscales associated with MT were also significant at elite. Focus and competitive desire were the most important psychological attributes characterizing the elite male weightlifters, while resilience and focus were at elite female. The correlation between MT and the achievement level was r =0.974 ** (p < 0.01, 2-tailed). MT represents a condition for developing the achievement level. It is recommended that sport psychologists should help Egyptian elite weightlifters to develop and refine their MT to enter "high mental toughness range", assisting with the formal integration of psychological training into physical training. As such, this integration may facilitate the effective transfer of mental skills into competition, which can help Egyptian weightlifters to achieve better results in great competitions (e.g., Olympic Games).
Introduction & Purpose: The present study aimed at investigating the relationship between mental toughness and self-confidence resources of elite male and female athletes in individual and team discipline. Methodology: The current study was a descriptive – correlational one. The participants of the study were the total number of individual and team athletes in Tehran province who had at least 5 years of sports experience, and participated in national competitions no less than one time. For this reason, the statistical sample was 145 elite athletes (15 to 40 years old) with average age of (26/84 ± 755/5) in different sport disciplines using available sampling (62 males, 83 females). To measure mental toughness and its component Sport Mental Toughness Questionnaire (SMTQ) of Sheard, Golby et al. has been applied, and Vealey’s Sources of Sport-Confidence Questionnaire (SSCQ) has been used to measure the sources of sport confidence. The collected data has been analyzed by means of Spearman's ranking correlation coefficient. Results: The results of the study revealed a positive and significant relationship between mental toughness and all three components of sources of sport confidence (p<0.05), in general these associations are stronger in women than men and individual than team athletes. Conclusion: Overall, according to the findings, with increasing mental toughness and its three subscales: confidence, constancy and control,
the self-confidence resources of athletes will be also increased.
This narrative review investigates the relationship between mental toughness (and mental toughness resources) and pain in athletes. Theorists have postulated that mentally tough athletes possess the ability to push through painful periods of training and competition to achieve high levels of performance. Athletes and coaches attribute the capacity to tolerate and even thrive while experiencing pain to be a potential differentiator to performance outcomes, however, few experimental studies examine the predictive value of mental toughness in the context of pain. There are researchers who have examined the resources of mental toughness that could shed light on how mental toughness influences pain experiences in athletes. Therefore, this review examined the relationship between mental toughness as a global construct and the separate mental toughness resources and pain experiences. We identified resources of mental toughness based on previous research and then considered which of these resources had been studied in the context of pain. Optimism, resilience, self-efficacy, and goal attention were identified as key components of mental toughness that were related to pain experiences. The findings of this review indicate a potential area for performance enhancement in the development of applied coaching practices.
The purpose of this study was to compare of aggression T and mental toughness among Basketball players of All India Intervarsity Championship,( Men and Women). For the design of the study, 100 (50 men & 50 women basketball players) were randomly selected from All India Intervarsity championship as the subject of the study. Aggression inventory questionnaire constructed and standardized by Prof. Anand Kumar Srivastava &
Mental toughness questionnaire prepared by Dr. Alan Goldberg.
Mental Toughness and its relationship to the determinants of the performance strategy of football players at Taif University
The research aimed to identify " Mental Toughness and its relationship to the determinants of the performance strategy of football players (Level A" - Level "B") at Taif University, The researcher used the descriptive method in the method of survey studies on a sample of (40) football players, divided into two groups (level "A", (level "B"), the strength of each group (20) players, The data collection tools were (Mental Toughness Scale) by James Loher, Arabization of Magda Ismail and Osama Abdel Rahman, (Performance strategy test) (TOPS) by Thomas et al., Arabization of Abdel Aziz Abdel Majid.
The most important results:
1. There are statistically significant differences in both Mental Toughness and the determinants of performance strategy among football players (Level “A” - Level “B”) at Taif University in favor of players (Level “A”).
2. There is a statistically significant correlation between both Mental Toughness and the determinants of the performance strategy of football players (Level “A” - Level “B”) at Taif University in favor of players (Level “A”).
3. 3. The psychological variables (Mental Toughness - determinants of performance strategy) are important factors in achieving sporting excellence and excellence during training and competitions of football players.
We all know we will die, but not when and how. Can private death awareness become public, and what happens when it does? This mixed-method research on the Covid-19 crisis reveals how pandemic politics cultivates and uses mass existential anxiety. Analyzing global discourse across vast corpora, we reveal an exceptional rise in global ‘mortality salience’ (awareness of death), and trace the socio-political dynamics feeding it. Comparing governmental pandemic policies worldwide, we introduce a novel model discerning ‘mortality mitigation’ (coping mechanisms) on a scale from steadfast resistance (‘oak’) to flexible resilience (‘reed’). We find that political trust, high median age, and social anxiety predict a reedy approach; and that the oak, typically pushing for stricter measures, better mitigates mortality. Stringency itself, however, hardly affects Covid-related cases/deaths. We enrich our model with brief illustrations from five countries: China and Israel (both oaks), Sweden and Germany (reeds) and the USA (an oak–reed hybrid).
Physical resilience is defined as the ability to optimize/recover function in response to the stressors (adversities) of disease, injury, or age-related physical decline, and is multifaceted with areas of overlap between biological, sociological, and psychological factors. This chapter focuses on physical resilience as it relates to rehabilitation of older adults with pathologies that limit motor function. After defining physical resilience, rehabilitation, and recovery, physical resilience research is summarized as it relates to the biology, psychology, and sociology of motor function and aging. The last section deals with research that more explicitly examines the interactions or areas of overlap, and can be considered an examination of the biopsychosocial aspects of physical resilience research as it relates to motor function and aging. Finally, physical activity is discussed as a potential way to assess and improve physical resilience. Future directions are discussed among which are suggestions as to how physical resilience research may be incorporated into clinical practice.
This study explored the relationship between mental toughness and college basketball performance, specifically examining possible moderating variables (gender and starting status).
Male and female (n = 197) college basketball players completed the Psychological Performance Inventory-Alternative (PPI-A), a measure of characteristics and skills consistent with mental toughness, and the PERF, an objective measure of basketball performance.
Findings suggest that basketball performance can be partially predicted by mental toughness and starting status. Males reported greater mental toughness than females. Starters and nonstarters did not differ in mental toughness. Moderated hierarchical regression analysis indicated that mental toughness was related to performance for male players as both a main effect and interaction with starter status. For female players, in contrast, starter status was the only significant predictor of performance. Practitioners are encouraged to foster the psychological skills associated with mental toughness in females and non-starters in basketball.
Discussion of the PPI-A as a measure of mental toughness and suggestions for its improvement are explored. A need exists for additional research on mental toughness and objective performance, as performance enhancement is a major impetus for research on mental toughness.
Objectives: Robust confidence beliefs (the ability to maintain confidence beliefs in the face of adversity) have been highlighted as an important characteristic that contributes to the make up of mentally tough athletes. The purpose of the present set of studies was to develop such a measure. Design: Three studies are reported that chart the development of a measure of Trait Robustness of Self-Confidence (i.e., the ability to maintain confidence in the face of disconfirming experiences). Method: Study 1 developed a 12-item inventory that was subjected to single-factor confirmatory factor analysis used in an exploratory fashion. Results: The factor structure of the resultant eight-item inventory (TROSCI) was consistent across both male and female athletes (S-B χ2 (20)=29.75; CFI=.98; RMSEA=.04; SRMR=.03). The single-factor structure of the eight-item inventory was confirmed in a second study that demonstrated structural (S-B χ2 (20)=29.36; CFI=.97; RMSEA=.05; SRMR=.04) and convergent validity (S-B χ2 (188)=244.83; CFI=.98; RMSEA=.05; SRMR=.06) with Vealey's TSCI. Finally, Study 3 demonstrated the predictive validity of TROSCI; high TROSC athletes were associated with more stable self-confidence levels prior to competition. Further, athletes with high TROSC levels managed to maintain higher state self-confidence levels than those with low TROSC levels. Conclusions: Results support the view of robust confidence beliefs and highlight other factors that may play a moderating role.
This paper tested relations between two measures of mental toughness. A sample of 110 male athletes (M age=20.81years, SD=2.76), derived from University sports teams and local sports clubs, gave informed consent before completing two questionnaires to assess mental toughness. It was hypothesized that scales and subscales from the two different instruments, which purported to measure the same or substantially overlapping scales, would be strongly correlated. Predictions concerning the expected relations were made a priori. Pearson correlations revealed a significant and positive relationship between higher order mental toughness scores (r=.75; p
Hypothesized a moderate positive relationship between the general outlook factor, personality hardiness, and basketball performance. 37 male high school basketball players completed a hardiness test (S. R. Maddi, 1987) that yielded not only a total score, but also part scores for commitment, control, and challenge. Also, 8 indices of basketball performance showed sufficient intercorrelation to form a composite score. Hardiness scores obtained on Ss before the season began were correlated with a composite measure of basketball performance throughout the season, yielding results that support the hypothesis. (French, Spanish, German & Italian abstracts) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Hypothesized that hardiness—commitment, control, and challenge—functions to decrease the effect of stressful life events to producing illness symptoms. 259 upper- and middle-level male managers (mean age 48 yrs) were administered a battery of tests (including Rotter's Internal–External Locus of Control Scale, the Schedule of Life Events, and the Seriousness of Illness Survey) covering a 5-yr period. Results support the hypothesis by showing main effects on illness for both stressful life events and hardiness and an interaction effect for these independent variables. (37 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
From W.B. Cannon's identification of adrenaline with "fight or flight" to modern views of stress, negative views of peripheral physiological arousal predominate. Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) arousal is associated with anxiety, neuroticism, the Type A personality, cardiovascular disease, and immune system suppression; illness susceptibility is associated with life events requiring adjustments. "Stress control" has become almost synonymous with arousal reduction. A contrary positive view of peripheral arousal follows from studies of subjects exposed to intermittent stressors. Such exposure leads to low SNS arousal base rates, but to strong and responsive challenge- or stress-induced SNS-adrenal-medullary arousal, with resistance to brain catecholamine depletion and with suppression of pituitary adrenal-cortical responses. That pattern of arousal defines physiological toughness and, in interaction with psychological coping, corresponds with positive performance in even complex tasks, with emotional stability, and with immune system enhancement. The toughness concept suggests an opposition between effective short- and long-term coping, with implications for effective therapies and stress-inoculating life-styles.
This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is Suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.
The aim of this paper was to systematically review the literature on coping in sport, examining evidence for both the trait and process perspectives, the types of coping strategies used by athletes, gender differences, age-related differences, and coping effectiveness. A comprehensive literature search of SPORTdiscus, PsychLIT, and PsychINFO in November 2004 yielded 64 studies spanning 16 years (1988 - 2004). The results indicated that athletes use a variety of coping strategies. Forty-six papers supported or adopted the process perspective (Lazarus, 1999; Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). There were also gender and age-related differences. Evidence was found to support three of the different models of coping effectiveness (goodness-of-fit approach, choice of coping strategy, and automacity). Based on this evidence, future research should address some of the methodological and measurement limitations of the sport psychology coping literature. In particular, prospective research designs that minimize the time delay between recall and the stressful experience are required to assess how coping changes over time. More attention to developmental issues to guide the formulation of sport-specific models to enhance our theoretical understanding is also required. Finally, coping effectiveness should be examined both in the short and long term, as a greater understanding of coping effectiveness has the potential to make a significant impact on applied practice.
Studied personality as a conditioner of the effects of stressful life events on illness onset. Two groups of middle- and upper-level 40-49 yr old executives had comparably high degrees of stressful life events in the previous 3 yrs, as measured by the Schedule of Recent Events. One group of 86 Ss suffered high stress without falling ill, whereas the other group of 75 Ss reported becoming sick after their encounter with stressful life events. Illness was measured by the Seriousness of Illness Survey (A. R. Wyler et al 1970). Discriminant function analysis, run on half of the Ss in each group and cross-validated on the remaining cases, supported the prediction that high stress/low illness executives show, by comparison with high stress/high illness executives, more hardiness, that is, have a stronger commitment to self, an attitude of vigorousness toward the environment, a sense of meaningfulness, and an internal locus of control. (43 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
The increasingly well funded and high-tech world of talent development (TD) represents an important investment for most sports. Reflecting traditional concepts of challenge and focus, the vast majority of such systems expend a great deal of effort maximizing support to the young athletes and trying to counter the impact of naturally occurring life stressors. In this article, we suggest that much of this effort is misdirected; that, in fact, talented potential can often benefit from, or even need, a variety of challenges to facilitate eventual adult performance. Our argument is built on evidence that such challenges are more common in athletes who reach the top, together with a critical consideration of the modus operandi and impact of psychological/character-focused interventions such as mental toughness and resilience. In conclusion, we explore some implications for the design and conduct of optimum academies and TD environments.
The purpose of this study was to assess the factorial validity of the Mental Toughness Questionnaire-48 (Clough, Earle, & Sewell, 2002). In total, 8207 participants (male n = 4019, female n = 3922, unspecified = 266) aged between 16 and 68 years (M = 37.00, SD = 12.09) completed the MTQ48. Model fit was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory structural equation modeling, in addition to the robust maximum likelihood estimator. Overall, our results support the factorial validity of the MTQ48 and indicate that the MTQ48 is a robust psychometric measure of mental toughness. Along with previous data, which supports the internal validity of the MTQ48 in addition to results of this study, it would appear that the MTQ48 is an acceptable method of assessing mental toughness.
The concept of mental toughness has been found to be related to outcome performance measures in sport and other competitive situations. Despite this, little attention has been devoted to understanding the cognitive mechanisms that underlie mental toughness. The current study attempted to identify the cognitive underpinnings of mental toughness using the directed forgetting paradigm, in which participants are given a surprise memory test for material they were previously instructed to forget. Regression analyses showed that mental toughness, as measured by the MTQ48 (Clough, Earle, & Sewell, 2002), did not influence the recall of a to-be-forgotten list, but participants with high mental toughness showed better recall of a to-be-remembered list following instructions to forget the previous list. The superior recall of the to-be-remembered list suggests that mentally tough individuals have an enhanced ability to prevent unwanted information from interfering with current goals. These findings support the proposal that cognitive inhibition is one of the mechanisms underpinning mental toughness.
Mentally tough athletes are conceptualized as being able to function effectively in stressful situations and recent research has found small to moderate correlations between mental toughness and coping. Despite this no research has thus far examined the possibility that mentally tough athletes experience less intense emotions. This paper tested the relationship between mental toughness and affect intensity to determine whether mentally tough athletes generally experienced more or less intense emotions. A sample of 112 sport performers (55 men and 57 women) aged between 18 and 51years (M=29.3, s=10.3) acted as participants, and ranged from recreational to national level in a variety of sports. Mental toughness and affect intensity were found to be unrelated. This is an important finding because it suggests participants with high or low levels of mental toughness do not characteristically experience more or less intense emotions. Thus there is no evidence to suggest the ability of mentally tough athletes to remain relatively unaffected by pressure or adversity is due to lower levels of affect intensity. More research is required to understand how mentally tough athletes (in comparison to less tough athletes) maintain control and high levels of performance in stressful circumstances.
Numerous studies have indicated that mental toughness plays a significant role in successful sports performance. However, most early research into the effects of mental toughness was merely descriptive, and only recently were the theoretical and systematic bases of mental toughness structures and concepts significantly established. Additionally, previous studies were based on a variety of measurements and research designs focusing on mental toughness structures and concepts, resulting in a number of non-identical points of view. In order to further understand the development of contemporary mental tenacity research, the purpose of this manuscript is to review those studies examining the relationship between mental toughness and sports performance, as well as focusing on the following four specific sections including the early views on mental toughness, contemporary mental toughness research applying qualitative approaches, contemporary mental toughness research using quantitative approaches, and research on mental toughness and other mental variables. Conclusion and future research recommendations in these areas are also covered.
This paper tested the relationship between mental toughness and attitudes towards risk-taking in undergraduate student athletes attending two Universities in the North of England. A sample of 69 men (M age=22.2years, s=5.28) and 36 women (M age=24.6years, s=7.67) participated and ranged from club to national level in a variety of sports. Participants gave informed consent before completing questionnaires to assess mental toughness and attitudes towards risk. Pearson Product Moment Correlations found significant and positive correlations between overall mental toughness and attitudes towards physical risks, but no relationship with psychological risk. Regression analysis found the mental toughness subscale of challenge to be the most significant predictor of attitudes towards physical risk. Interpersonal confidence was the only mental toughness subscale found to be significantly and positively related to attitudes towards psychological risk. Independent t-tests found men reported significantly higher overall mental toughness, confidence in abilities, and attitudes towards both physical and psychological risk, than women. These results are discussed with regard to previous research findings and future researchers are encouraged to consider employing experimental methodologies in order to manipulate contextual factors to more fully understand any individual differences.
Purpose – The purpose of this study is to investigate whether employees at various levels of managerial positions (e.g. senior, middle, and junior) exhibit different levels of mental toughness. In addition, the study seeks to explore possible effects of age on mental toughness. Design/methodology/approach – A total of 522 participants working in UK-based organisations completed demographic information and the Mental Toughness Questionnaire. Findings – Results revealed significant main effects for both managerial position and age. Follow-up analysis revealed that mental toughness ratings were higher in more senior positions, and that mental toughness generally increased with age. Research limitations/implications – The main limitation of the study is its cross-sectional design. Longitudinal studies investigating the development of mental toughness over time or the effect of mental toughness training are needed. It appears, however, that age plays a role in an individual's mental toughness profile. This suggests that increased exposure to significant life events may have a positive developmental effect on mental toughness. Originality/value – The results of the study would suggest that mental toughness can be developed through appropriate training programmes.
The purpose of the present study was to explore coaches' perceptions of mental toughness attributes as well as the strategies used to build mental toughness. Participants were 10 National Collegiate Athletic Association head coaches from a variety of sports. In-depth interviews were conducted using standard qualitative methodology and content analyzed by three researchers. Based on raw data responses, lower and then higher-order themes were developed to capture the main ideas of mental toughness discussed by coaches. Regarding mental toughness attributes, psychological skills, motivation to succeed, and resilience emerged as higher-order themes, indicating some overlapping themes with previous studies exploring attributes from athletes' perspectives. Creating a tough physical practice environment, a positive mental environment, and providing mental toughness learning opportunities were themes that emerged as strategies coaches used to build mentally tough athletes. Findings are discussed in reference to previous literature on mental toughness and the psychology of excellence.
Anxiety was defined by Freud as “something felt,” an emotional state that included feelings of apprehension, tension, nervousness, and worry accompanied by physiological arousal. Consistent with Darwin's evolutionary perspective, Freud observed that anxiety was adaptive in motivating behavior that helped individuals cope with threatening situations and that intense anxiety was prevalent in most psychiatric disorders. In measuring anxiety, Cattell (1966) emphasized the importance of distinguishing between anxiety as an emotional state and individual differences in anxiety as a personality trait.
This paper provides a review of mental toughness research and examines the major conceptual concerns that are evident in current mental toughness literature. Despite more rigorous scientific approaches to the study of mental toughness, a number of limitations are apparent: these include the assumption that elite or super elite performers are mentally tough (failure to provide objective measures), focusing research solely on elite or super elite performers, appearing to conceptualise mental toughness in absolute rather than relative terms, and ignoring contextual differences. Comparisons are made with research developments in the related concept of hardiness. It is argued that more innovative approaches to research are required to further develop knowledge. This should include more experimental studies, longitudinal research, psychophysiological approaches, and testing the influence of mental toughness in contexts outside sport performance. Further efforts to understand how mental toughness develops are encouraged. With recent advances in instruments to measure mental toughness, further quantitative research is deemed appropriate. The efficacy of proposed methods of enhancing mental toughness such as environmental manipulations, and mental skills training approaches need to be evaluated if the gap between theoretical research and practice is to be bridged.
This study examined the leadership preferences of mentally tough athletes. A sample of 103 athletes (M age = 22.06 years, SD = 4.37) participated and ranged from club/university level to county standard in a variety of team sports. Participants completed the Leadership Scale for Sport – Preference Version (Chelladurai & Saleh, 1978) to measure preferred leadership, and the MTQ48 (Clough, Earle, & Sewell, 2002) to measure mental toughness. Mental toughness was predicted to be significantly and positively related to a preference for training and instructive behaviours, and negatively related to a preference for social support. Linear regression analysis and Pearson correlations were used to analyse the data. Consistent with theoretical predictions, mental toughness was found to be significantly related to a preference for training and instructive behaviours (r = 0.40, P < .01). Results of linear regression analysis revealed the MTQ48 subscales of commitment and challenge were significant predictors of preference for training and instructive behaviours. Total mental toughness was not found to be significantly related to preference for social support, democratic behaviours, autocratic behaviours or positive feedback (P > .05). This suggests that coaches working with mentally tough athletes should consider emphasising training and instructive behaviours if they wish to attain congruence between actual and preferred leadership behaviours. Greater research into the influence of personality upon athlete leadership preferences is encouraged.
The concept of mental toughness is widely used, but empirical evidence is required to fully understand this construct and its related variables. The purpose of this paper was to explore the relationship between: (a) mental toughness and coping, (b) mental toughness and optimism, and (c) coping and optimism. Participants were 677 athletes (male 454; female 223) aged between 15 and 58 years (M age = 22.66 years, SD = 7.20). Mental toughness correlated significantly with 8 of the 10 coping subscales and optimism. In particular, higher levels of mental toughness were associated with more problem or approach coping strategies (mental imagery, effort expenditure, thought control, and logical analysis) but less use of avoidance coping strategies (distancing, mental distraction, and resignation). Eight coping subscales were significantly correlated with optimism and pessimism. In conclusion, the relationships observed in this study emphasize the need for the inclusion of coping and optimism training in mental toughness interventions.
The purpose of this research project was to develop a psychometrically sound measure of mental toughness in cricket, using a multi-method research design. Two qualitative studies in which current and former cricketers' (n = 16) perceptions of the key components of mental toughness in cricket and the suitability of an item pool to target those key components (n = 9) were assessed. We then conducted two quantitative studies to examine both the within- and between-network properties of the Cricket Mental Toughness Inventory (CMTI) using confirmatory factor analysis and correlations. Support for the existence of a five-factor, 15-item model was revealed with three independent samples of cricketers; two contained cricketers from several different countries (n = 285 and 285), whereas one contained Australian cricketers only (n = 433). Each of the five subscales (affective intelligence, attentional control, resilience, self-belief, and desire to achieve) were positively correlated with dispositional flow, hardiness, and resilience and negatively correlated with athlete burnout. Although requiring replication and extension, the results of the present study provide preliminary support for the factor structure, internal reliability, and construct validity of the CMTI.
Generalized self-efficacy scale Measurement of perceived self-eficacy: psychometric scales for cross-cul-tural research
WEGNER, M., SCHWARZER, R., &JERUSALEM, M. (1993) Generalized self-efficacy scale. In R. Schwarzer (Ed.), Measurement of perceived self-eficacy: psychometric scales for cross-cul-tural research. Berlin, Ger.: Berlini Freie Universitat. Accepted December 31, 2004. This article has been cited by: