Annexin V and terminal differentiation of growth plate chondrocytes
Terminal differentiation and mineralization are the final events in endochondral bone formation and allow the replacement of cartilage by bone. Retinoic acid (RA) stimulates these events, including upregulation of expression and activity of alkaline phosphatase (APase), expression of annexins II, V, and VI proteins, which bind to membranes and form Ca(2+) channels, expression of osteocalcin and runx2, another mineralization-related protein and terminal differentiation-related transcription factor, and ultimately mineralization. Chelating cytosolic Ca(2+) with BAPTA-AM, interfering with annexin Ca(2+) channel activities using K-201, a specific annexin Ca(2+) channel blocker, or suppression of annexin V expression using siRNA inhibited these events. Overexpression of annexin V in embryonic chicken growth plate chondrocytes resulted in an increase of cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration, [Ca(2+)](i) similar to [Ca(2+)](i) increase in RA-treated cultures. Overexpression of annexin V also resulted in upregulation of annexin II, annexin VI, osteocalcin, and runx2 gene expression, expression and activity of APase, and ultimately stimulation of mineralization. K-201 inhibited upregulation of osteocalcin and runx2 gene expression, APase expression and activity, and mineralization in annexin V-overexpressing growth plate chondrocytes. These findings indicate that annexins II, V, and VI alter Ca(2+) homeostasis in growth plate chondrocytes thereby regulating terminal differentiation and mineralization events. Overexpression of annexin V is sufficient to stimulate these terminal differentiation events in growth plate chondrocytes, whereas suppression of annexin V expression inhibits these events.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.