Peripheral nerve-derived HIV-1 is predominantly CCR5-dependent and causes neuronal degeneration and neuroinflammation

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States
Virology (Impact Factor: 3.32). 05/2005; 334(2):178-93. DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2005.01.027
Source: PubMed


HIV-related peripheral neuropathy is a major neurological complication of HIV infection, although little is known about its pathogenesis. We amplified HIV-1 C2V3 envelope sequences from peroneal nerves obtained from HIV/AIDS patients. Sequence analysis and infectious recombinant viruses containing peripheral nerve-derived C2V3 sequences indicated a predominance of CCR5-dependent and macrophage-tropic HIV-1, although dual tropic viruses using both CCR5 and CXCR4 were identified. The neuropathogenic effects of recombinant HIV-1 clones were investigated using a novel dorsal root ganglion culture system that was comprised of sensory neurons, macrophages and Schwann cells from transgenic rats expressing human CD4 and CCR5 on monocytoid cells. Despite restricted viral replication, HIV-1 infection caused a reduction in the percentage of neurons with neuritic processes together with significant neurite retraction, which was accompanied by induction of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha expression, depending on the individual virus. Our results suggest that HIV-1 infection of the peripheral nervous system causes axonal degeneration, possibly through the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

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Available from: Carlos A Pardo
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    • "Results from repeated neurite length assessments of individual cells (Fig. 6) support this hypothesis. These conclusions are in conflict with some previous studies [71], [72], [81], where reduction in neurite length was mainly attributed to pruning of existing neurites. Disparate findings may reflect different types of neurons, their age and relative maturity, the response of neurons to individual viral proteins versus the multiple stimuli in HIV+sup, and the selection criteria for neurons; we specifically evaluated sub-lethal neurite length changes by assessing only [TUNEL(-)] cells instead of the entire population. "
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    ABSTRACT: HIV-1 enters the CNS soon after initial systemic infection; within the CNS parenchyma infected and/or activated perivascular macrophages, microglia and astrocytes release viral and cellular toxins that drive secondary toxicity in neurons and other cell types. Our previous work has largely modeled HIV-neuropathology using the individual viral proteins Tat or gp120, with murine striatal neurons as targets. To model disease processes more closely, the current study uses supernatant from HIV-1-infected cells. Supernatant from HIV-1SF162-infected differentiated-U937 cells (HIV+sup) was collected and p24 level was measured by ELISA to assess the infection. Injection drug abuse is a significant risk factor for HIV-infection, and opiate drug abusers show increased HIV-neuropathology, even with anti-retroviral treatments. We therefore assessed HIV+sup effects on neuronal survival and neurite growth/pruning with or without concurrent exposure to morphine, an opiate that preferentially acts through µ-opioid receptors. Effects of HIV+sup ± morphine were assessed on neuronal populations, and also by time-lapse imaging of individual cells. HIV+sup caused dose-dependent toxicity over a range of p24 levels (10-500 pg/ml). Significant interactions occurred with morphine at lower p24 levels (10 and 25 pg/ml), and GSK3β was implicated as a point of convergence. In the presence of glia, selective neurotoxic measures were significantly enhanced and interactions with morphine were also augmented, perhaps related to a decreased level of BDNF. Importantly, the arrest of neurite growth that occurred with exposure to HIV+sup was reversible unless neurons were continuously exposed to morphine. Thus, while reducing HIV-infection levels may be protective, ongoing exposure to opiates may limit recovery. Opiate interactions observed in this HIV-infective environment were similar, though not entirely concordant, with Tat/gp120 interactions reported previously, suggesting unique interactions with virions or other viral or cellular proteins released by infected and/or activated cells.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "The DRG plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated neuropathy which likely involves both indirect cytokine- and direct viral protein-mediated neurotoxicity [42]. Neuronal toxicity in the DRG is associated with upregulated IL-1β and TNFα expression [42,43]. "
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    ABSTRACT: In patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) neuropathic symptoms may develop within weeks of starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). This timing coincides with the occurrence of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Our objective was to investigate the longitudinal association of plasma cytokine and soluble receptor concentrations with incident neuropathic symptoms within 12 weeks of starting programme-based cART in a nested case-control study. One hundred and twenty adults without neuropathic symptoms and about to initiate cART were followed longitudinally for 24 weeks after cART initiation. Subjects were examined for peripheral neuropathy at baseline (pre-cART) and 2-, 4-, 12- and 24 weeks thereafter. Individuals developing neuropathic symptoms within 12 weeks of starting cART were matched in a nested case-control design with those remaining symptom-free for at least 24 weeks. Plasma was collected at each visit. Cytokines and soluble receptors were quantified using multiplex immunometric assays. Incident neuropathic symptoms occurred in 32 (27%) individuals within 12 weeks of starting cART for the first time. Cytokine concentrations increased at 2 weeks, irrespective of symptom-status, returning to baseline concentrations at 12 weeks. Compared to the control group, the symptomatic group had higher baseline levels of interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R)-antagonist. The symptomatic group also showed greater increases in soluble interleukin-2 receptor-alpha and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-II levels at week 2 and soluble interleukin-6 receptor levels at week 12. Ratios of pro-inflammatory- vs anti-inflammatory cytokines were higher for TNF-alpha/IL-4 (p = 0.022) and interferon-gamma/IL-10 (p = 0.044) in those developing symptoms. After 24 weeks of cART, the symptomatic group showed higher CD4+ counts (p = 0.002). The initiation of cART in previously treatment naive individuals was associated with a cytokine 'burst' between 2- and 4 weeks compared with pre-cART levels. Individuals developing neuropathic symptoms within 12 weeks of starting cART showed evidence of altered cytokine concentrations even prior to initiating cART, most notably higher circulating IL-1R-antagonist levels, and altered ratios of "pain-associated" cytokine and soluble receptors shortly after cART initiation.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · BMC Infectious Diseases
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    • "Human dorsal root ganglia are composed of neurons, macrophages, Schwann cells and satellite cells. Of these, only macrophages appear permissive to HIV infection (Cosenza et al., 2002; Jones et al., 2005). Immunocytochemical studies of autopsied dorsal root ganglia from HIV-infected (HIV + ) and uninfected (HIV À ) patients were performed. "
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    ABSTRACT: Distal sensory polyneuropathy is a frequent complication of lentivirus infections of the peripheral nervous system including both human immunodeficiency virus and feline immunodeficiency virus. Proteinase-activated receptors are G protein-coupled receptors implicated in the pathogenesis of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Proteinase-activated receptor-1 is expressed on different cell types within the nervous system including neurons and glia, but little is known about its role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory peripheral nerve diseases, particularly lentivirus-related distal sensory polyneuropathy. Herein, the expression and functions of proteinase-activated receptor-1 in the peripheral nervous system during human immunodeficiency virus and feline immunodeficiency virus infections were investigated. Proteinase-activated receptor-1 expression was most evident in autopsied dorsal root ganglion neurons from subjects infected with human immunodeficiency virus, compared with the dorsal root ganglia of uninfected subjects. Human immunodeficiency virus or feline immunodeficiency virus infection of cultured human or feline dorsal root ganglia caused upregulation of interleukin-1β and proteinase-activated receptor-1 expression. In the human immunodeficiency virus- or feline immunodeficiency virus-infected dorsal root ganglia, interleukin-1β activation was principally detected in macrophages, while neurons showed induction of proteinase-activated receptor-1. Binding of proteinase-activated receptor-1 by the selective proteinase-activated receptor-1-activating peptide resulted in neurite retraction and soma atrophy in conjunction with cytosolic calcium activation in human dorsal root ganglion neurons. Interleukin-1β exposure to feline or human dorsal root ganglia caused upregulation of proteinase-activated receptor-1 in neurons. Exposure of feline immunodeficiency virus-infected dorsal root ganglia to the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist prevented proteinase-activated receptor-1 induction and neurite retraction. In vivo feline immunodeficiency virus infection was associated with increased proteinase-activated receptor-1 expression on neurons and interleukin-1β induction in macrophages. Moreover, feline immunodeficiency virus infection caused hyposensitivity to mechanical stimulation. These data indicated that activation and upregulation of proteinase-activated receptor-1 by interleukin-1β contributed to dorsal root ganglion neuronal damage during lentivirus infections leading to the development of distal sensory polyneuropathy and might also provide new targets for future therapeutic interventions.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Brain
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