Improving Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping Resolution in Experimental Crosses by the Use of Genotypically Selected Samples

Department of Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 27599, USA.
Genetics (Impact Factor: 5.96). 06/2005; 170(1):401-8. DOI: 10.1534/genetics.104.033746
Source: PubMed


One of the key factors contributing to the success of a quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping experiment is the precision with which QTL positions can be estimated. We show, using simulations, that QTL mapping precision for an experimental cross can be increased by the use of a genotypically selected sample of individuals rather than an unselected sample of the same size. Selection is performed using a previously described method that optimizes the complementarity of the crossover sites within the sample. Although the increase in precision is accompanied by a decrease in QTL detection power at markers distant from QTL, only a modest increase in marker density is needed to obtain equivalent power over the whole map. Selected samples also show a slight reduction in the number of false-positive QTL. We find that two features of selected samples independently contribute to these effects: an increase in the number of crossover sites and increased evenness in crossover spacing. We provide an empirical formula for crossover enrichment in selected samples that is useful in experimental design and data analysis. For QTL studies in which the phenotyping is more of a limiting factor than the generation of individuals and the scoring of genotypes, selective sampling is an attractive strategy for increasing genome-wide QTL map resolution.

Download full-text


Available from: Todd Vision
  • Source
    • "The genetic maps for the five populations we evaluated had average map distances between adjacent markers ranging from 3.8 to 7.9 cM (Table 1). Xu et al. (2005) reported that marker density less than 10 cM between flanking markers containing QTLs greatly improved QTL detection power and precision of CIs. Most QTLs were identified within dense flanking marker intervals; the exceptions to this were QTLs on Gm05 and Gm06, which were near Satt681 and BARC-04481-08709 in the 93K×J population (Table 3). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Key message: QTLs for delayed canopy wilting from five soybean populations were projected onto the consensus map to identify eight QTL clusters that had QTLs from at least two independent populations. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for canopy wilting were identified in five recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations, 93705 KS4895 × Jackson, 08705 KS4895 × Jackson, KS4895 × PI 424140, A5959 × PI 416937, and Benning × PI 416937 in a total of 15 site-years. For most environments, heritability of canopy wilting ranged from 0.65 to 0.85 but was somewhat lower when averaged over environments. Putative QTLs were identified with composite interval mapping and/or multiple interval mapping methods in each population and positioned on the consensus map along with their 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). We initially found nine QTL clusters with overlapping CIs on Gm02, Gm05, Gm11, Gm14, Gm17, and Gm19 identified from at least two different populations, but a simulation study indicated that the QTLs on Gm14 could be false positives. A QTL on Gm08 in the 93705 KS4895 × Jackson population co-segregated with a QTL for wilting published previously in a Kefeng1 × Nannong 1138-2 population, indicating that this may be an additional QTL cluster. Excluding the QTL cluster on Gm14, results of the simulation study indicated that the eight remaining QTL clusters and the QTL on Gm08 appeared to be authentic QTLs. QTL × year interactions indicated that QTLs were stable over years except for major QTLs on Gm11 and Gm19. The stability of QTLs located on seven clusters indicates that they are possible candidates for use in marker-assisted selection.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Theoretical and Applied Genetics
  • Source
    • "This resource is useful across onion germplasm since the anchor markers used here have been tested in other mapping populations, allowing the linkage maps to be aligned for comparative mapping using the CMap tool [45] provided at[41]. The map was then used as a reference to select a subset of genotypes for bin mapping [46,47] to facilitate rapid marker screening and targeted map development. A set of 10 genotypes was identified for selective genotyping (bin mapping) using MapPop [32], providing an approximate bin length resolution of 8.8 cM. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Although modern sequencing technologies permit the ready detection of numerous DNA sequence variants in any organisms, converting such information to PCR-based genetic markers is hampered by a lack of simple, scalable tools. Onion is an example of an under-researched crop with a complex, heterozygous genome where genome-based research has previously been hindered by limited sequence resources and genetic markers. Results We report the development of generic tools for large-scale web-based PCR-based marker design in the Galaxy bioinformatics framework, and their application for development of next-generation genetics resources in a wide cross of bulb onion (Allium cepa L.). Transcriptome sequence resources were developed for the homozygous doubled-haploid bulb onion line ‘CUDH2150’ and the genetically distant Indian landrace ‘Nasik Red’, using 454™ sequencing of normalised cDNA libraries of leaf and shoot. Read mapping of ‘Nasik Red’ reads onto ‘CUDH2150’ assemblies revealed 16836 indel and SNP polymorphisms that were mined for portable PCR-based marker development. Tools for detection of restriction polymorphisms and primer set design were developed in BioPython and adapted for use in the Galaxy workflow environment, enabling large-scale and targeted assay design. Using PCR-based markers designed with these tools, a framework genetic linkage map of over 800cM spanning all chromosomes was developed in a subset of 93 F2 progeny from a very large F2 family developed from the ‘Nasik Red’ x ‘CUDH2150’ inter-cross. The utility of tools and genetic resources developed was tested by designing markers to transcription factor-like polymorphic sequences. Bin mapping these markers using a subset of 10 progeny confirmed the ability to place markers within 10 cM bins, enabling increased efficiency in marker assignment and targeted map refinement. The major genetic loci conditioning red bulb colour (R) and fructan content (Frc) were located on this map by QTL analysis. Conclusions The generic tools developed for the Galaxy environment enable rapid development of sets of PCR assays targeting sequence variants identified from Illumina and 454 sequence data. They enable non-specialist users to validate and exploit large volumes of next-generation sequence data using basic equipment.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · BMC Genomics
  • Source
    • "Using the high dense SNP information, we selected 164 informative markers on all chromosomes, except Y. Marker distances in genomic regions that differed between the two parental lines were below 10 Mb, which was about 5 cM (Additional file 3: Figure S1) [23]. A higher marker density would not lead to a higher mapping resolution in this pedigree [42]. Intervals larger than 10 Mb did not contain informative markers and thus could not add information to the linkage analysis. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Genomic imprinting refers to parent-of-origin dependent gene expression caused by differential DNA methylation of the paternally and maternally derived alleles. Imprinting is increasingly recognized as an important source of variation in complex traits, however, its role in explaining variation in muscle and physiological traits, especially those of commercial value, is largely unknown compared with genetic effects. We investigated both genetic and genomic imprinting effects on key muscle traits in mice from the Berlin Muscle Mouse population, a key model system to study muscle traits. Using a genome scan, we first identified loci with either imprinting or genetic effects on phenotypic variation. Next, we established the proportion of phenotypic variation explained by additive, dominance and imprinted QTL and characterized the patterns of effects. In total, we identified nine QTL, two of which show large imprinting effects on glycogen content and potential, and body weight. Surprisingly, all imprinting patterns were of the bipolar type, in which the two heterozygotes are different from each other but the homozygotes are not. Most QTL had pleiotropic effects and explained up to 40% of phenotypic variance, with individual imprinted loci accounting for 4-5% of variation alone. Surprisingly, variation in glycogen content and potential was only modulated by imprinting effects. Further, in contrast to general assumptions, our results show that genomic imprinting can impact physiological traits measured at adult stages and that the expression does not have to follow the patterns of paternal or maternal expression commonly ascribed to imprinting effects.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · BMC Genomics
Show more