Intravenous Regional Anesthesia Using Lidocaine and Magnesium
Trakya University, Adrianoupolis, Edirne, Turkey Anesthesia & Analgesia
(Impact Factor: 3.47).
04/2005; 100(4):1189-92. DOI: 10.1213/01.ANE.0000145062.39112.C5
We conducted this study to evaluate the effects of magnesium, when added to lidocaine for IV regional anesthesia (IVRA), on tourniquet pain. Thirty patients undergoing elective hand surgery during IVRA were randomly assigned to two groups. IVRA was achieved with 10 mL of saline plus 3 mg/kg lidocaine 0.5% diluted with saline to a total of 40 mL in group C or with 10 mL of 15% magnesium sulfate (12.4 mmol) plus 3 mg/kg lidocaine 0.5% diluted with saline to a total of 40 mL in group M. Injection pain, sensory and motor block onset and recovery time, tourniquet pain, and anesthesia quality were noted. Patients were instructed to receive 75 mg of IM diclofenac when the visual analog scale (VAS) score was >4, and analgesic requirements were recorded. Sensory and motor block onset times were shorter and recovery times were prolonged in group M (P < 0.05). VAS scores of tourniquet pain were lower in group M at 15, 20, 30, 40, and 50 min (P < 0.001). Anesthesia quality, as determined by the anesthesiologist and surgeon, was better in group M (P < 0.05). Time to the first postoperative analgesic request in group C was 95 +/- 29 min and in group M was 155 +/- 38 min (P < 0.05). Postoperative VAS scores were higher for the first postoperative 6 h in group C (P < 0.05). Diclofenac consumption was significantly less in group M (50 +/- 35 mg) when compared with group C (130 + 55 mg) (P < 0.05). We conclude that magnesium as an adjunct to lidocaine improves the quality of anesthesia and analgesia in IVRA.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "When mixed with local anesthetic, magnesium sulfate may also show beneficial effects in intravenous regional anesthesia (Bier block). Turan et al.  reported that when magnesium was added to lidocaine for Bier block, the quality of anesthesia and analgesia was improved. Specifically, the onset times of the sensory and motor blocks were shorter and postoperative analgesia was better with magnesium. "
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ABSTRACT: Magnesium sulfate has been used in preeclampsia patients in order to prevent seizure. It is also used for the treatment of arrhythmia and asthma and as an anesthetic adjunct in patients undergoing surgery for pheochromocytoma. However, its potentiating effects on perioperative analgesia and muscle relaxation have drawn attention recently. These characteristics of magnesium (anesthetic- and analgesic-sparing effect) enable anesthesiologists to reduce the use of anesthetics during surgery and the use of analgesics after surgery. Magnesium sulfate has a high therapeutic index and cost-effectiveness. Considering these diverse characteristics useful for anesthesia, appropriate use of magnesium sulfate would improve surgical outcome and patients' satisfaction.
- "We used 3 mg/kg of 2% lignocaine diluted with normal saline to make a total solution of 40 ml which was similar to that used by Harris, 1965 Reuben, 2002, and Turan, 2005. 1 mg butorphanol was added to 3 mg/kg of lignocaine diluted with normal saline to make a total solution of 40 ml. A dose of 1 mg butorphanol was preferred, as it is known to produce significant analgesia with minimal side effects. "
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ABSTRACT: Opioids are most commonly used as adjuncts in intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA) to improve the quality of intraoperative and postoperative analgesia. There is paucity of literature on the use of butorphanol in IVRA.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the likely benefits of addition of butorphanol to lignocaine in Bier's block in terms of onset and duration of sensory block and also for analgesic requirement in postoperative period.
A randomized double blind study was conducted at Tertiary Care Educational Institute.
A total of 40 adult ASA I or II patients scheduled to undergo upper limb surgery were randomized in two groups (n=20). Group I received 3 mg/kg of lignocaine alone and group II received 1 mg butorphanol in addition to 3 mg/kg lignocaine. Sensory block onset time and time to recovery from sensory block after tourniquet deflation were noted using the pin prick method. Duration of postoperative analgesia was noted using a visual analogue scale. All the patients were compared for the time to first rescue analgesic consumption and total analgesic consumption in first 24 hours postoperatively.
The statistical analysis was done using unpaired Student's t-test.
Our study showed significant prolongation of postoperative analgesia in group II as noted by the time to first analgesic requirement. Total analgesic consumption in first 24 hours postoperatively was less in group II. Sensory block onset time and time to recovery from sensory block after tourniquet deflation, did not show any significant difference between the two groups.
Addition of butorphanol to lignocaine in IVRA significantly prolongs the duration of postoperative analgesia and 24 hours analgesic consumption is less in patients receiving butorphanol along with lignocaine in IVRA. However, there is no effect on sensory block onset time and time to recovery from sensory block.
Available from: Parviz Kashefi
- "While a variety of adjuvants have been recommended for improving intraoperative and postoperative analgesia and maintaining better operative conditions, these adjutants can cause side effects such as sedation, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, wound hematoma, skin rash, and hypotension.12454445 "
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ABSTRACT: Midazolam has analgesic properties. The aim of the present study was to assess the analgesic effect of midazolam when added to lidocaine in intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA).
Sixty patients undergoing hand surgery were randomly allocated into two groups to receive 3 mg/kg 2% lidocaine diluted with saline to a total volume of 40 mL in the control group (group lidocaine saline ~ LS, n=30) or 50 μg/kg midazolam plus 3 mg/kg 2% lidocaine diluted with saline to a total volume of 40 mL in the midazolam group (group lidocaine midazolam ~ LM, n=30). Before and after the tourniquet application, hemodynamic variables, tourniquet pain, sedation, and analgesic use were recorded.
Shortened sensory and motor block onset time [4.20 (0.84) vs. 5.94 (0.83) min, p = 0.001 and 6.99 (0.72) vs. 9.07 (0.99) min, p = 0.001 in LM and LS groups, respectively], prolonged sensory and motor block recovery times [8.41 (0.94) vs. 5.68 (0.90) min, p = 0.001 and 11.85 (1.18) vs. 7.06 (0.82) min, p = 0.001 in LM and LS groups, respectively], shortened visual analog scale (VAS) scores of tourniquet pain (p < 0.05), and improved quality of anesthesia were found in group LM (p < 0.05). VAS scores were lower in group LM in the postoperative period (p = 0.001). Postoperative analgesic requirements were significantly smaller in group LM (p = 0.001).
The addition of 50 μg/kg midazolam to lidocaine for IVRA shortens the onset of sensory and motor block, and improves quality of anesthesia and perioperative analgesia without causing side effects.
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