Article

Pathways of Youth Gambling Problem Severity.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities Campus, Minneapolis, MN 55454, USA.
Psychology of Addictive Behaviors (Impact Factor: 2.75). 04/2005; 19(1):104-7. DOI: 10.1037/0893-164X.19.1.104
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Prospective studies are needed to advance knowledge of the developmental features of gambling involvement and associated problems. Developmental pathways of youth gambling problem severity (no problem gambling, at-risk gambling, and problem gambling) are described on the basis of a 3-wave data set that spans midadolescence to young adulthood (N=305). The most prevalent group was the resistors (no problem gambling at all data points); 60% of study participants were in this group. New incidence cases (no problem gambling followed by at-risk or problem gambling) and desistors (at-risk or problem gambling followed by no problem gambling) were found among 21% and 13% of participants, respectively. Only 4% of cases were persistors, that is, at-risk or problem gambling at all 3 data waves. Findings are discussed in light of extant research on adolescent gambling that heretofore has not benefited from a developmental pathway perspective.

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    • "This exploratory study analysed data from a large prospective study of Australian youth to investigate temporal changes in young adult gambling behaviour and examine: (1) the prevalence of sub-groups with similar patterns of PG behaviour over time (defined as resistance , persistence, desistance, and new incidence; Winters et al., 2005); (2) social developmental and behavioural risk and protective factors for these PG patterns; and (3) young adult behavioural outcomes associated with these PG patterns. The social developmental risk and protective constructs were selected based on their established associations with PG (Scholes-Balog et al., 2014) and other problem behaviours (e.g., Hemphill, Heerde, Herrenkohl, et al., 2011), and were drawn from the Communities That Care (CTC) youth survey. "
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    ABSTRACT: There is instability in the developmental course of problem gambling [PG] over time; however, studies that examine PG at an aggregate level obscure these variations. The current study employed data from a longitudinal study of Australian young adults to investigate: 1) PG patterns (i.e., resistance, persistence, desistence, and new incidence); 2) prospective risk and protective factors for these patterns; and 3) behavioural outcomes associated with these patterns. A sample of 2261 young adults (55.73% female) from Victoria, Australia, who were part of the International Youth Development Study completed a survey in 2010 (T1, age 21) and 2012 (T2, age 23) measuring PG (two items based on established measures), risk and protective factors, and behavioural outcomes. The majority of the sample (91.69%) were resistors (no PG at T1 and T2), 3.62% were new incidence PG cases, 2.63% were desistors (PG at T1 but not T2), and 2.07% reported persistent PG at T1 and T2. Individual civic activism was protective of new incidence PG, while affiliation with antisocial peers and frequent alcohol use increased the risk of persistence. Persistent problem gamblers also experienced the greatest number of poor behavioural outcomes at T2. New incidence was associated with internalising symptoms at T2, while desistance was not associated with any behavioural outcomes. In conclusion, each PG pattern was associated with different predictors and outcomes, highlighting the need to consider variation in the course of young adult PG in order to provide efficacious prevention and intervention approaches, and to protect against relapse.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2016 · Addictive behaviors
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    • "Of course, this assumes that individuals with mild or few symptoms of PG are at increased risk of later developing full criteria for PG. In fact other developmental pathways are possible, such as being at-risk and then becoming a social/nonproblematic gambler (Winters et al., 2005), or continuing at the same risk level. Given the cross-sectional nature of these data, temporal or causal interpretations are yet not possible. "

    Full-text · Dataset · Aug 2015
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    • "It is important for developmental research to examine phenomena in focal, circumscribed developmental periods with high relevance for a given phenotype, as we do in the present study. Evidence that gambling is highly prevalent and consequential during emerging adulthood (Winters et al. 2005) underscores the importance of the present study. Nonetheless , the absence of other age groups in the present study prevents us from drawing direct age-based comparisons, and this represents an important direction for future research. "
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    ABSTRACT: Increases in access to gambling venues have been accompanied by increased gambling behavior among young adults. The present research examined associations among Five Factor Model personality traits, motives for gambling, and gambling behavior and problems using latent class analysis. College students (N = 220) completed online measures of personality and gambling behavior as part of a larger intervention trial. Agreeableness and conscientiousness were negatively associated with indicators of gambling behavior. Low agreeableness and high neuroticism were associated with gambling-specific motives, particularly for less frequently endorsed motives. Personality-based latent class analyses of emerging adult gamblers revealed support for three distinct groups reflecting a resilient personality group, a normative personality group, and a vulnerable personality group, which were further differentiated by gambling behaviors and gambling-specific motives. Associations between personality traits and gambling-specific motives highlight potential heterogeneity among college students who gamble. Together, findings suggest that the correlational and latent class-based analyses, as well as the personality and motivation analyses, present complementary information with respect to the attributes of college student gamblers. Implications and future research directions are discussed.
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