Rapid analysis of trace levels of antibiotic polyether ionophores in surface water by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography with ion trap tandem mass spectrometric detection. J Chromatogr A
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1372, USA. Journal of Chromatography A
(Impact Factor: 4.17).
03/2005; 1065(2):187-98. DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2004.12.091
The occurrence of antibiotics in surface and ground water is an emerging area of interest due to the potential impacts of these compounds on the environment. This paper details a rapid, sensitive and reliable analytical method for the determination of monensin A and B, salinomycin and narasin A in surface water using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) with selected reaction monitoring (SRM). Several product ions as sodiated sodium salts for MS-MS detection have been identified and documented with their proposed fragmentation pathways. Statistical analysis for determination of the method detection limit (MDL), accuracy and precision of the method is described. The average recovery of ionophore antibiotics in pristine and wastewater-influenced water was 96.0+/-8.3% and 93.8+/-9.1%, respectively. No matrix effect was seen with the surface water. MDL was between 0.03 and 0.05 microg/L for these antibiotic compounds in the surface water. The accuracy and day-to-day variation of method fell within acceptable ranges. The method is applied to evaluate to the occurrence of these compounds in a small watershed in Northern Colorado. The method verified the presence of trace levels of these antibiotics in urban and agricultural land use dominated sections of the river.
Available from: Ching-Hua Huang
- "Their antimicrobial properties lie primarily in their capacity to transport ions across the lipid bilayer of cellular membrane , which leads to impaired osmotic balance, depleted energy, and disintegrated cells (Westley, 1982; Bergen and Bates, 1984; Smith and Galloway, 1983). Hence, the environmental presence of these compounds may cause adverse effects on native biota and may increase pathogen resistance to these drugs (Boxall et al., 2003). Contamination of ionophores in the environment may be reduced if they degrade in the broiler litter before it is applied to agricultural soils. "
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ABSTRACT: The use of ionophores as antiparasitic drugs plays an important role in US poultry production, especially in the broiler () industry. However, administered ionophores can pass through the bird's digestive system and appear in broiler litter, which, when applied to agricultural fields, can present an environmental hazard. Stacking (storing or stockpiling) broiler litter for some time might decrease the litter ionophore concentrations before land application. Because ionophores undergo abiotic hydrolysis at low pH, decreasing litter pH with acidic aluminum sulfate (alum) might also decrease ionophore concentrations. We assessed the change in ionophore concentrations in broiler litter in response to the length of time broiler litter was stored (stacking time) and alum addition. We spiked broiler litter with monensin and salinomycin, placed alum-amended litter (∼pH 4-5) and unamended litter (∼pH 8-9) into 1.8-m bins, and repeatedly sampled each bin for 112 d. Our findings showed that stacking broiler litter alone did not have an impact on monensin concentration, but it did slowly reduce salinomycin concentration by 55%. Adding alum to broiler litter reduced monensin concentration by approximately 20% relative to unamended litter, but it did not change salinomycin concentration. These results call for continued search for alternative strategies that could potentially reduce the concentration of ionophores in broiler litter before their application to agricultural soils.
Available from: Ching-Hua Huang
- "Several researchers reported presence of polyether ionophores in natural waters, mostly in areas close to livestock production where these drugs are also used. For instance, monensin and salinomycin (<0.01 to ~0.04 mg L −1 ) were found in Cache la Poudre River in northern Colorado (Cha et al., 2005; Kim and Carlson, 2006, 2007). Monensin was also detected (0.02– 0.21 mg L −1 ) in the Grand River within Ontario, Canada (Hao et al., 2006), in lagoons (3.91–16.24 "
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ABSTRACT: Polyether ionophores, monensin, and salinomycin are commonly used as antiparasitic drugs in broiler production and may be present in broiler litter (bird excreta plus bedding material). Long-term application of broiler litter to pastures may lead to ionophore contamination of surface waters. Because polyether ionophores break down at low pH, we hypothesized that decreasing litter pH with an acidic material such as aluminum sulfate (alum) would reduce ionophore losses to runoff (i.e., monensin and salinomycin concentrations, loads, or amounts lost). We quantified ionophore loss to runoff in response to (i) addition of alum to broiler litter and (ii) length of time between litter application and the first simulated rainfall event. The factorial experiment consisted of unamended (~pH 9) vs. alumamended litters (~pH 6), each combined with simulated rainfall at 0, 2, or 4 wk after litter application. Runoff from alum-amended broiler litter had 33% lower monensin concentration (p < 0.01), 57% lower monensin load (p < 0.01), 48% lower salinomycin concentration (p < 0.01), and 66% lower salinomycin load (p < 0.01) than runoff from unamended broiler litter when averaged across all events of rainfall. Ionophore losses to runoff were also less when rainfall was delayed for 2 or 4 wk after litter application relative to applying rainfall immediately after litter application. While the weather is difficult to predict, our data suggest that ionophore losses in runoff can be reduced if broiler litter applications are made to maximize dry time after application. © 2015 American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.
Available from: Xiang-Rong Xu
- "O in this study was comparable to those detected in Yangtze Estuary (Yan et al., 2013) and in Mekong River of Vietnam (Managaki et al., 2007), but was one order of magnitude lower than that detected in Victoria Harbour of Hongkong (Minh et al., 2009). The SAL concentration in this study was higher than that detected in Poudre River of USA (Cha et al., 2005). The TMP concentration in this study was similar to those detected in Yantai Bay (Zhang et al., 2013a) and Bohai Sea (Zhang et al., 2013b), but lower than that detected in Laizhou Bay (Zhang et al., 2012). "
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