The importance of the amide bond nearest the thiol group in enzymatic reactions of coenzyme A
Department of Chemistry, Stony Brook University, NY 11794-3400, USA. Bioorganic Chemistry
(Impact Factor: 2.15).
04/2005; 33(2):90-107. DOI: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2004.10.002
Analogues of coenzyme A (CoA) and of CoA thioesters have been prepared in which the amide bond nearest the thiol group has been modified. An analogue of acetyl-CoA in which this amide bond is replaced with an ester linkage was a good substrate for the enzymes carnitine acetyltransferase, chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, and citrate synthase, with K(m) values 2- to 8-fold higher than those of acetyl-CoA and V(max) values from 14 to >80% those of the natural substrate. An analogue in which an extra methylene group was inserted between the amide bond and the thiol group showed less than 4-fold diminished binding to the three enzymes but exhibited less than 1% activity relative to acetyl-CoA with carnitine acetyltransferase and no measurable activity with the other two enzymes. Analogues of several CoA thioesters in which the amide bond was replaced with a hemithioacetal linkage exhibited no measurable activity with the appropriate enzymes. The results indicate that some aspects of the amide bond and proper distance between this amide and the thiol/thioester moiety are critical for activity of CoA ester-utilizing enzymes.
Available from: Michael D Burkart
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ABSTRACT: Drug discovery often begins with the screening of large compound libraries to identify lead compounds. Recently, the enzymes that are involved in the biosynthesis of natural products have been investigated for their potential to generate new, diverse compound libraries. There have been several approaches toward this end, including altering the substrate specificities of the enzymes involved in natural product biosynthesis and engineering functional communication between enzymes from different biosynthetic pathways. While there exist assays to assess the substrate specificity of enzymes involved in these pathways, there is no simple method for determining whether enzymes from different synthases will function cooperatively to generate the desired product(s). Herein we report a method that provides insight into both substrate specificity and compatibility of protein-protein interactions between the acyl carrier protein (ACP) and ketosynthase (KS) domains involved in fatty acid and polyketide biosynthesis. Our technique uses a one-pot chemoenzymatic method to generate post-translationally modified ACPs that are capable of covalently interacting with KS domains from different biosynthetic systems. The extent of interaction between ACPs and KSs from different systems is easily detected and quantified by a gel-based method. Our results are consistent with previous studies of substrate specificity and ACP-KS binding interactions and provide new insight into unnatural substrate and protein interactions.
Available from: Aaron Thorvald Larsen
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ABSTRACT: A convenient synthesis of 4'-aminopantetheine from commercial D-pantethine is reported. The amino group was introduced by reductive amination in order to avoid substitution at a sterically congested position. Derivatives of 4'-aminopantetheine were also prepared to evaluate the effect of O-to-N substitution on inhibitors of the resistance-causing enzyme aminoglycoside N-6'-acetyltransferase. The biological results combined with docking studies indicate that in spite of its reported unusual flexibility and ability to adopt different folds, this enzyme is highly specific for AcCoA.
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