Article

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

University of Chicago, Department of Medicine, Section of Endocrinology, Chicago, USA.
New England Journal of Medicine (Impact Factor: 55.87). 04/2005; 352(12):1223-36. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMra041536
Source: PubMed

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    • "Obesity often complicates reproduction by affecting genetic factors that are known to play a role in the coordination of many encoded proteins released at selected intervals for the establishment of pregnancies (Jungheim er al., 2012; Metwally et al., 2007). For example, genetic-related conditions that correlate with decreased reproduction (e.g., fewer reproductive cycles) include women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and female carriers of the fragile X syndrome (i.e., FMR1 gene mutation) (Pasquali and Gambineri, 2006; Peng et al., 2014; Ehrmann, 2005). About 5 to 10% of women from the general population are diagnosed with PCOS and over 40 genes are known to play a role in this disorder (Venkatesh et al., 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: To provide an update of currently recognized clinically relevant candidate and known genes for human reproduction and related infertility plotted on high resolution chromosome ideograms (850 band level) and represented alphabetically in tabular form. Descriptive authoritative computer-based website and peer-reviewed medical literature searches used pertinent keywords representing human reproduction and related infertility along with genetics and gene mutations. A master list of genes associated with human reproduction and related infertility was generated with a visual representation of gene locations on high resolution chromosome ideograms. GeneAnalytics pathway analysis was carried out on the resulting list of genes to assess underlying genetic architecture for infertility. Advances in genetic technology have led to the discovery of genes responsible for reproduction and related infertility. Genes identified (N=371) in our search primarily impact ovarian steroidogenesis through sex hormone biology, germ cell production, genito-urinary or gonadal development and function, and related peptide production, receptors and regulatory factors. The location of gene symbols plotted on high resolution chromosome ideograms forms a conceptualized image of the distribution of human reproduction genes. The updated master list can be used to promote better awareness of genetics of reproduction and related infertility and advance discoveries on genetic causes and disease mechanisms. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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    • "Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common metabolic dysfunction and endocrine abnormality in women of reproductive age (Franks, 1995; Wood et al., 2007). It is estimated to affect more than 5% of the female population, and is the major cause of menstrual disturbances and anovulatory infertility (Asuncion et al., 2000; Azziz et al., 2004; Ehrmann, 2005; Franks, 1995; Knochenhauer et al., 1998). Although PCOS patients are typically characterized by production of an increased number of oocytes, these oocytes are often of poor quality and the oocyte developmental competence is altered (Dumesic and Abbott, 2008; Ludwig et al., 1999; Mulders et al., 2003; Sahu et al., 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: The high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) that infect the anogenital tract are strongly associated with the development of cervical carcinoma, which is the second most common cancer in women worldwide. Therapeutic drugs specifically targeting HPV are not available. Polyphenolic compounds have gained considerable attention because of their cytotoxic effects against a variety of cancers and certain viruses. In this study, we examined the effects of several polyphenols on cellular proliferation and death of the human cervical cancer cells and human cervical epithelial cells containing stable HPV type 16 episomes (HPVep). Our results show that three polyphenols inhibited proliferation of HeLa cells dose-dependently. Furthermore, one of the examined polyphenols, gallic acid (GA), also inhibited the proliferation of HPVep cells and exhibited significant specificity towards HPV-positive cells. The anti-proliferative effect of GA on HPVep and HeLa cells was associated with apoptosis and upregulation of p53. These results suggest that GA can be a potential candidate for the development of anti-HPV agents. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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    • "Excess adiposity may thus cause polycystic ovary syndrome and may be associated with anovulation resulting in irregular menses (oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea), elevated androgens with or without clinical hyperandrogenism (hirsutism, acne, and male-pattern hair loss), and cystic ovaries. In adults, 30% to 75% of women with polycystic ovary syndrome have obesity (Ehrmann, 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of child and adolescent obesity in the United States increased dramatically between 1970 and 2000, and there are few indications that the rates of childhood obesity are decreasing. Obesity is associated with myriad medical, psychological, and neurocognitive abnormalities that impact children's health and quality of life. Genotypic variation is important in determining the susceptibility of individual children to undue gains in adiposity; however, the rapid increase in pediatric obesity prevalence suggests changes to children's environments and/or to their learned behaviors may dramatically affect body weight regulation. This paper presents an overview of the epidemiology, consequences, and etiopathogenesis of pediatric obesity, serving as a general introduction to the subsequent papers in this Special Issue that address aspects of childhood obesity and cognition in detail. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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