The Comparative Hemodynamic Effects of Methohexital and Remifentanil in Electroconvulsive Therapy
Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio 44108, USA. Journal of Ect
(Impact Factor: 1.39).
04/2005; 21(1):12-5. DOI: 10.1097/01.yct.0000154881.12464.57
Remifentanil is a short acting opioid frequently used to supplement general anesthesia for brief procedures. Narcotic agents are known for their ability to blunt autonomic responses to stimuli such as laryngoscopy and intubation and do not alter seizure threshold. We hypothesized that the combination of remifentanil and methohexital for induction would produce favorable suppression of sympathetic response during electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). With Institutional Review Board approval and informed consent, patients were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, crossover study of methohexital alone versus remifentanil with an adjuvant of low-dose methohexital. One hundred ten ECT treatments were evaluated and subjects were treated in an alternating fashion with one of two induction protocols: Methohexital alone in an 80-100 mg IV bolus or remifentanil 500 mcg IV bolus combined with methohexital 40 mg IV. Bilateral ECT was performed in standard fashion and systolic blood pressure and heart rate were recorded throughout the procedure. No significant differences were found in baseline hemodynamic values between the two groups. Heart rate was significantly lower in the remifentanil group versus methohexital group at one minute post-induction and just prior to ECT stimulus. Pre-ECT systolic blood pressure was not significantly different between the two groups. Heart rate remained lower in the remifentanil group at all measured timepoints during the treatment and continuously for five minutes after the seizure. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower at one minute following the end of seizure and five minutes after end of seizure. Remifentanil's short duration of action, favorable side effect profile, potential proconvulsant activity and ability to suppress hemodynamic response make it a potential novel drug for ECT induction.
Available from: Mesut Cetin
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ABSTRACT: Propofol versus propofol-remifentanil combination anaesthesia in electroconvulsive therapy: Effects on seizure duration and hemodynamics Objective: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment of severe psychiatric disorders and has a favorable side effect profile. The efficacy of ECT is related to seizure duration and to the relative stimulus dosage above seizure threshold. Seizure duration of 25 seconds is considered to be the norm in modern ECT, although a definite correlation between seizure duration and clinical outcome remains to be demonstrated. Short seizures are considered negative predictors of outcome. The ideal hypnotic agent for ECT anesthesia should have a short half-life, not interfere with seizure duration and quality, and guarantee the patient's hemodynamic stability. We aimed to investigate the effects of propofol and propofol remifentanil combination to seizure duration and hemodynamic outcomes in ECT treatment. Material and Method: Twenty patients diagnosed with treatment resistant major depressive disorder and schizophrenia were included in this study. Heart rate (HR), systolic arterial pressure (SAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), and bispectral index (BIS) were measured and electroencephalograph was monitored in all patients. Patients were randomized into two groups as
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ABSTRACT: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is standard treatment of severe depression. The induction of a seizure is a core event in successful ECT. Although propofol is a frequently used anesthetic agent, one of its limitations is a reduction of seizure duration. No such effects have been reported regarding remifentanil, an ultrarapid-acting opioid that is used to induce and maintain anesthesia. The simultaneous administration of propofol and remifentanil may have similar safety and efficacy in terms of induction of anesthesia during ECT as propofol alone and significantly increase seizure duration.
Twenty-one ECT patients (10 men, 11 women, aged 24 to 81 years) were recruited. Muscle paralysis was achieved with succinylcholine (0.5-0.75 mg/kg intravenously [IV]). Unconsciousness was induced by either propofol (1 mg/kg IV) or propofol (0.5 mg/kg IV) + remifentanil (1 microg/kg) in a crossover format. ECT was administered according to established clinical protocols at the Sheba Medical Center, Israel. No changes in ECT current were permitted in the 2 protocols of each patient. Statistical analysis was based on paired t tests.
In all but 2 cases, seizure duration was significantly longer in the remifentanil group than in the control group (motor seizure 53.7 +/- 28.3 seconds vs. 29.5 +/- 10.9 seconds, t = 4.017, P = 0.0007; Electroencephalographic (EEG) seizures 60.8 +/- 25.1 seconds vs. 40.1 +/- 17.0 seconds, t = 3.971, P = 0.001). No significant differences were found in mean recovery time, post-treatment elevation in blood pressure, heart-beat, or oxygen saturation.
During anesthesia, the addition of remifentanil to propofol appears to be as effective as propofol alone with regard to anesthesia efficacy and cardiovascular function while significantly increasing seizure duration. Whether this discovery is of relevance to the clinical efficacy of ECT remains to be tested.
Available from: Frederique Servin
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ABSTRACT: Most opioids used in anaesthesia are of the anilidopiperidine family, including fentanyl, alfentanil, sufentanil and remifentanil. While all share similar pharmacological properties, remifentanil, the newest one, is probably the most original, which is the reason this review focusses especially on this drug. Remifentanil is a potent mu-agonist that retains all the pharmacodynamic characteristics of its class (regarding analgesia, respiratory depression, muscle rigidity, nausea and vomiting, pruritus, etc.) but with a unique pharmacokinetic profile that combines a short onset and the fastest offset, independent of the infusion duration. Consequently, it offers a unique titratability when its effects need to be quickly achieved or suppressed, but it requires specific drug delivery schemes such as continuous infusion, target-controlled infusion and anticipated postoperative pain treatment. Kinetic differences between opioids used in anaesthesia and some clinical uses of remifentanil are reviewed in this chapter.
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