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    • "Asthma is a disease of the airways characterized by airway obstruction and airway hyperresponsiveness. The airways of people with asthma are inflamed and undergo continuous remodelling resulting in thicker airway walls leading to airflow limitation [1]. The interaction between airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC) and activated mast cells may be crucial in the pathogenesis of asthma [2]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Activated mast cells are present within airway smooth muscle (ASM) bundles in eosinophilic asthma. ASM production of the chemokine CXCL10 plays a role in their recruitment. Thus the effects of glucocorticoids (fluticasone, budesonide), long-acting β2-agonists (salmeterol, formoterol) and thiazolidinediones (ciglitazone, rosiglitazone) on CXCL10 production by ASM cells (ASMC) from people with and without asthma were investigated in vitro. Methods Confluent serum-deprived cells were treated with the agents before and during cytokine stimulation for 0-24 h. CXCL10 protein/mRNA, IκB-α levels and p65 activity were measured using ELISA, RT PCR, immunoblotting and p65 activity assays respectively. Data were analysed using ANOVA followed by Fisher’s post-hoc test. Results Fluticasone and/or salmeterol at 1 and 100 nM inhibited CXCL10 release induced by IL-1β and TNF-α, but not IFNγ or all three cytokines (cytomix). The latter was also not affected by budesonide and formoterol. In asthmatic ASMC low salmeterol, but not formoterol, concentrations increased cytomix-induced CXCL10 release and at 0.01 nM enhanced NF-κB activity. Salmeterol 0.1nM together with fluticasone 0.1 and 10 nM still increased CXCL10 release. The thiazolidinediones ciglitazone and rosiglitazone (at 25 and 100 μM) inhibited cytomix-induced CXCL10 release but these inhibitory effects were not prevented by the PPAR-g antagonist GW9662. Ciglitazone did not affect early NF-κB activity and CXCL10 mRNA production. Conclusions Thus the thiazolidinediones inhibited asthmatic ASMC CXCL10 release under conditions when common asthma therapies were ineffective or enhanced it. They may provide an alternative strategy to reduce mast cell-ASM interactions and restore normal airway physiology in asthma.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · Respiratory research
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    • "Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that is characterised by airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR), increased broncho-constriction, and an increased airway wall thickness [1]. The increase of the airway smooth muscle cell (ASMC) mass in asthma results in thickening of the airway wall by increasing the mass of contractile cells and reduction of the bronchial lumen. "
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    ABSTRACT: Airway wall remodelling is an important pathology of asthma. Growth factor induced airway smooth muscle cell (ASMC) proliferation is thought to be the major cause of airway wall thickening in asthma. Earlier we reported that Dimethylfumarate (DMF) inhibits platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB induced mitogen and stress activated kinase (MSK)-1 and CREB activity as well as IL-6 secretion by ASMC. In addition, DMF altered intracellular glutathione levels and thereby reduced proliferation of other cell types. We investigated the effect of DMF on PDGF-BB induced ASMC proliferation, on mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation; and on heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression. ASMC were pre-incubated for 1 hour with DMF and/or glutathione ethylester (GSH-OEt), SB203580, hemin, cobalt-protoporphyrin (CoPP), or siRNA specific to HO-1 before stimulation with PDGF-BB (10 ng/ml). PDGF-BB induced ASMC proliferation was inhibited in a dose-dependant manner by DMF. PDGF-BB induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK, but not of JNK. DMF enhanced the PDGF-BB induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and there by up-regulated the expression of HO-1. HO-1 induction inhibited the proliferative effect of PDGF-BB. HO-1 expression was reversed by GSH-OEt, or p38 MAPK inhibition, or HO-1 siRNA, which all reversed the anti-proliferative effect of DMF. Our data indicate that DMF inhibits ASMC proliferation by reducing the intracellular GSH level with subsequent activation of p38 MAPK and induction of HO-1. Thus, DMF might reduce ASMC and airway remodelling processes in asthma.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · Respiratory research
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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes a general approach for robot inverse kinematic transformation, which computes all possible solutions of this multimodal problem. A function which computes the error between two tool center points (TCPs) is minimized by an advanced genetic algorithm. This multi-population genetic algorithm uses exchange and migration operators for computing all solutions of multimodal optimization problems
    No preview · Conference Paper · Jun 1998
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