Cardiorespiratory Fitness Attenuates Metabolic Risk Independent of Abdominal Subcutaneous and Visceral Fat in Men

School of Physical and Health Education, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada, K7L 3N6.
Diabetes Care (Impact Factor: 8.42). 04/2005; 28(4):895-901. DOI: 10.2337/diacare.28.4.895
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Moderate to high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are associated with a lower risk of the metabolic syndrome and all-cause mortality. Unknown is whether CRF attenuates health risk for a given level of abdominal visceral fat, subcutaneous fat, and/or waist circumference.
The sample studied comprised 297 apparently healthy men with available computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scans of the abdomen, metabolic data, and maximal treadmill exercise test results. Men were categorized into low-CRF (20%, n = 56), moderate-CRF (40%, n = 94), and high-CRF (40%, n = 147) groups based on age and exercise test results. All analyses were adjusted for age.
For a given level of waist circumference, visceral fat, or subcutaneous fat, the high-CRF group had lower triglyceride levels (P < 0.05) and higher HDL cholesterol levels than the low- or moderate-CRF groups. There was a significant group interaction (P < 0.01) for blood pressure, indicating that the increase in blood pressure per unit increase in visceral fat or waist circumference was greater in men in the low-CRF group compared with the high-CRF group. The relative risks of having the metabolic syndrome were 1.8 (95% CI 1.0-3.1) and 1.6 (0.9-2.7) times higher in the low- and moderate-CRF groups, respectively, compared with the high-CRF group after adjusting for age, visceral fat, and subcutaneous fat (P for trend = 0.06).
High levels of CRF are associated with a substantial reduction in health risk for a given level of visceral and subcutaneous fat.

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Available from: Peter Katzmarzyk, Sep 06, 2015
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    • "Studies in several international populations suggest that higher total levels of physical activity are associated with lower incidence and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (Bertrais et al., 2005; Cho et al., 2009; Dunstan et al., 2005; He et al., 2013; Irwin et al., 2002; Lakka and Laaksonen, 2007; Panagiotakos et al., 2004; Santos et al., 2007; Zhu et al., 2004) and that low levels of physical activity are associated with progression to metabolic syndrome over time (Ekelund et al., 2005); however, these relationships may not be consistent by type or intensity of physical activity (Ford et al., 2005; He et al., 2013; Lakka and Laaksonen, 2007; Lakka et al., 2003). Cardiorespiratory fitness is also related to lower incidence (Ninomiya et al., 2004) and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (Irwin et al., 2002; Lakka and Laaksonen, 2007; Lee et al., 2005). Differences have been reported by type of physical activity, with some previous research suggesting that higher levels of leisure-time, but not occupational, physical activity are associated with lower metabolic syndrome prevalence (Halldin et al., 2007; Sisson et al., 2009). "
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