Beverage Consumption Patterns in Elementary School Aged Children across a Two-Year Period

Human Performance Laboratory, University of Nebraska-Kearney, Kearney, Nebraska, USA.
Journal of the American College of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 1.45). 05/2005; 24(2):93-8. DOI: 10.1080/07315724.2005.10719449
Source: PubMed


Existing data was reexamined to determine changes in beverage consumption and associations between beverages consumed and BMI Z-score in children (n = 164) across two years.
Beverages (milk, 100% juice, diet soda or sugar sweetened) and total caloric intake were calculated from a 24-hour diet recall. Height and weight were measured to calculate BMI. Subjects were categorized by BMI Z-score as normal weight, overweight, gained weight and lost weight. Data was collected at baseline and year 2.
Significant decreases in milk and increases in diet soda were found over two years in all subjects and normal weight, whereas overweight had a significant increase in diet soda consumption and a decrease in milk consumption that did not reach significance. Change in milk consumption was inversely correlated with sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Increases in diet soda consumption were significantly greater for overweight and subjects who gained weight as compared to normal weight subjects. Baseline BMI Z-score and year 2 diet soda consumption predicted 83.1% of the variance in year 2 BMI Z-score.
Shifts in beverage consumption were found in this convenient sample across two years. Diet soda consumption was the only type of beverage associated with year 2 BMI Z-score, and consumption was greater in overweight subjects and subjects who gained weight as compared to normal weight subjects at two years. Additional longitudinal data examining associations between beverage consumption and BMI is needed in children and adolescents, as consumption of regular and diet soda has become more of a social norm.


Available from: Janet Whatley Blum
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    • "Residual confounding for adiposity may explain the association between diet beverages and BP because obese individuals may consume these beverages in an effort to reduce calories and lose weight[6]. According to Blum et al.[23], overweight study participants and study participants who gained weight in 2 years after baseline had significantly higher diet soda consumption than normal weight study participants. Our data also show that diet drinks consumers have a slightly high prevalence of overweight/obesity , but after adjustment for BMI, they still presented higher BP. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between consumption of sugar-sweetened and diet soft drinks with blood pressure (BP) in adolescents. Methods: Fifth graders of 20 public schools were invited to participate in an intervention aimed at behavioral dietary changes and had their BP, weight, and height measured at baseline. Type and frequency of soft drink consumption were assessed using a food and beverages frequency questionnaire, and students were classified as nonconsumers, sugar-sweetened soft drink consumers, and diet soft drink consumers. Results: Of the 574 students invited, 512 were examined and 488 had their BP measured. Of these, 25 (5.1%) reported to be nonconsumers, 419 (85.9%) were sugar-sweetened soft drink consumers, and 44 (9%) were diet soft drink consumers. Mean SBP and DBP were 101.3/57.8, 102.6/58.8, and 106.0/61.3 mmHg for these three groups of consumption, respectively. After adjustment for sex, age, BMI, physical activity, addition of salt to food, and education of the head of the family, SBP was 5.4 mmHg higher in the diet soft drink consumers group compared with the nonconsumers group and 3.3 mmHg higher compared with the sugar-sweetened consumers group (P value of trend = 0.01). Moreover, DBP was also higher among diet soft drink consumers compared with nonconsumers, with a difference of 3.3 mmHg, and compared with sugar-sweetened consumers, with a difference of 2.3 mmHg (P value of trend = 0.04). Conclusion: The results indicate that the consumption of soft drink is associated with increased BP, which is further increased by drinking diet type sodas.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Hypertension
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    • "Recent studies have suggested that consumption of artificial sweeteners may lead to an increased risk of excessive weight gain, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (Duffey, Steffen, Van Horn, Jacobs, & Popkin, 2012; Lutsey, Steffen, & Stevens, 2008; Yang, 2010). Several large-scale prospective cohort studies have found a positive correlation between artificial sweetener use and weight gain in adults (Colditz et al., 1990; Fowler et al., 2008; Stellman & Garfinkel, 1988) and in children (Berkey, Rockett, Field, Gillman, & Colditz, 2004; Blum, Jacobsen, & Donnelly, 2005; Striegel-Moore et al., 2006). Consistent with the findings of our study, artificial sweeteners appear to have more effects in males than in females (Berkey et al., 2004). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of artificial sweeteners has increased together with the epidemic growth of obesity. In addition to their widespread use in sodas, artificial sweeteners are added to nearly 6,000 other products sold in the US, including baby foods, frozen dinners and even yogurts. It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners can lead to body weight gain and an altered metabolic profile. However, very few studies have evaluated the effects of maternal consumption of artificial non-caloric sweeteners on body weight, feeding behavior or the metabolism of offspring in adult life. In this study, we found that animals exposed to aspartame during the prenatal period presented a higher consumption of sweet foods during adulthood and a greater susceptibility to alterations in metabolic parameters, such as increased glucose, LDL and triglycerides. These effects were observed in both males and females, although they were more pronounced in males. Despite the preliminary nature of this study, and the need for further confirmation of these effects, our data suggest that the consumption of sweeteners during gestation may have deleterious long-term effects and should be used with caution. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Appetite
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    • "Several longitudinal studies [7-12] and a meta-analysis [13] have reported a direct association between intake of soft drink and other sweet drinks (a beverage category including fruit juice, fruit drink, cordial (a sweet, flavoured, concentrated syrup that is mixed with water to taste) and soft (carbonated) drinks) and weight gain in children and adolescents. Support for the association is not universal, however, with other longitudinal studies [14-17] and two meta-analyses [18,19] not supporting the association. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Intake of sweet drinks has previously been associated with the development of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents. The present study aimed to assess the consumption pattern of sweet drinks in a population of children and adolescents in Victoria, Australia. Methods Data on 1,604 children and adolescents (4–18 years) from the comparison groups of two quasi-experimental intervention studies from Victoria, Australia were analysed. Sweet drink consumption (soft drink and fruit juice/cordial) was assessed as one day’s intake and typical intake over the last week or month at two time points between 2003 and 2008 (mean time between measurement: 2.2 years). Results Assessed using dietary recalls, more than 70% of the children and adolescents consumed sweet drinks, with no difference between age groups (p = 0.28). The median intake among consumers was 500 ml and almost a third consumed more than 750 ml per day. More children and adolescents consumed fruit juice/cordial (69%) than soft drink (33%) (p < 0.0001) and in larger volumes (median intake fruit juice/cordial: 500 ml and soft drink: 375 ml). Secular changes in sweet drink consumption were observed with a lower proportion of children and adolescents consuming sweet drinks at time 2 compared to time 1 (significant for age group 8 to <10 years, p = 0.001). Conclusion The proportion of Australian children and adolescents from the state of Victoria consuming sweet drinks has been stable or decreasing, although a high proportion of this sample consumed sweet drinks, especially fruit juice/cordial at both time points.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · BMC Public Health
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