Transcriptome analysis of the aphid bacteriocyte, the symbiotic host cell that harbors an endocellular mutualistic bacterium, Buchnera

Environmental Molecular Biology Laboratory and Genome Science Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.67). 05/2005; 102(15):5477-82. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0409034102
Source: PubMed


Aphids possess bacteriocytes, cells specifically differentiated to harbor obligatory mutualistic bacteria of the genus Buchnera, which have lost many genes that are essential for common bacterial functions. To understand the host's role in maintaining the symbiotic relationship, bacteriocytes were isolated from the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and the host transcriptome was investigated by using EST analysis and real-time quantitative RT-PCR. A number of genes were highly expressed specifically in the bacteriocyte, including (i) genes for amino acid metabolism, including those for biosynthesis of amino acids that Buchnera cannot produce, and those for utilization of amino acids that Buchnera can synthesize; (ii) genes related to transport, including genes for mitochondrial transporters and a gene encoding Rab, a G protein that regulates vesicular transport; and (iii) genes for putative lysozymes that degrade bacterial cell walls. Significant up-regulation of i clearly indicated that the bacteriocyte is involved in the exchange of amino acids between the host aphid and Buchnera, the key metabolic process in the symbiotic system. Conspicuously high expression of ii and iii shed light on previously unknown aspects of the host-Buchnera interactions in the symbiotic system.

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    • "Nutrient-providing symbionts are commonly found in hosts with restricted diets, for example, aphids feeding on phloem sap (Baumann, 2005), blood-feeding diptera (Wang et al., 2013) or grain weevils (Heddi et al., 1999). Symbionts can provide essential amino acids, vitamins or help in nitrogen recycling (Nakabachi et al., 2005;Feldhaar et al., 2007;Michalkova et al., 2014;Patino-Navarrete et al., 2014). Such bacteria are commonly harbored in bacteriocytes, specialized host cells that sometimes form special organ-like structures, the bacteriomes (Baumann, 2005) or are confined to the insect gut (Engel and Moran, 2013). "
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