Predictors of cessation in a cohort of current and former smokers over 13 years

Department of Health Behavior, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA.
Nicotine & Tobacco Research (Impact Factor: 3.3). 01/2005; 6 Suppl 3(Suppl 3):S363-9. DOI: 10.1080/14622200412331320761
Source: PubMed


The present study attempted to identify predictors of smoking cessation in a cohort of cigarette smokers followed over 13 years. Data are reported on 6,603 persons who resided in one of 20 U.S. communities involved in the National Cancer Institute's Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT) study, were current smokers in the COMMIT trial in 1988, and completed detailed tobacco use telephone surveys in 1988, 1993, and 2001. A person was classified as a former smoker if at the time of follow-up he or she reported not smoking for at least 6 months prior to the interview. Reasons and methods for quitting also were assessed in 1993 and 2001. Among smokers in 1988, 24% had stopped smoking by 1993 and 42% were not smoking by 2001. The most frequently cited reasons for quitting were health and cost reasons, while assisted methods to quit were more common in more recent years. Measures of nicotine dependence were much more strongly associated with cessation than measures of motivation. Other predictors included male gender, older age, higher income, and less frequent alcohol consumption, although the gender effect no longer existed when cessation from cigarettes as well as other tobacco products was considered as the outcome. The present study shows that nicotine dependence is a major factor predicting long-term cessation in smokers. This finding has implications for tobacco control policy and treatment approaches.

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    • "Initial sustained abstinence from tobacco during a quit attempt is a robust predictor of long-term smoking cessation (e.g., Hughes, Kreely, & Naud, 2004). As such, a large body of research has focused on identifying factors that impede early abstinence (e.g., Caponnetto & Polosa, 2008; Garvey & Bliss, 1992), as well as those that promote long-term maintenance (e.g., Agboola, McNeill, Coleman, & Bee, 2010; Hyland et al., 2004). " Milestone " research has focused on short-term cessation trials (e.g., 10 weeks in length or less) where initial abstinence is characterized by any day of non-smoking occurring within the first two weeks of a cessation attempt (Japuntich, Leventhal, Piper, Bolt, & Roberts, 2011a; Shiffman et al., 2006; Wileyto et al., 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Most cigarette smoking cessation research has aimed to clarify characteristics associated with initial and sustained abstinence, with less attention paid to predictors of gaining abstinence following an initial failure. Methods: The current investigation explored pre-treatment demographic, smoking, and psychiatric characteristics related to gaining abstinence among smokers who failed to attain initial abstinence. Participants were 809 individuals enrolled in extended, 52-week, smoking cessation interventions. Of these, 287 (62.4%) failed to achieve initial abstinence. Gaining abstinence following initial abstinence failure was defined as achieving seven-day point prevalent abstinence at any post-initial abstinence assessment. Results: Those who gained abstinence (Gainers) were more likely to have a live-in partner (χ(2)(1, N=283)=3.8, p=.05, Cramér's V=.12), identify as Hispanic (χ(2)(1, N=281)=7.8, p<.01, Cramér's V=.17), evidence lower baseline expired breath carbon monoxide (F(1, 284)=5.7, p=.02, η(2)=.02), report less cigarette dependence (F(1, 278)=7.1, p<.01, η(2)=.03), and report past week cannabis use (χ(2)(1, N=284)=5.6, p=.02, Cramér's V=.14). A logistic regression model suggested that having a live-in partner (OR=5.14, 95% CI=1.09-3.02, p=.02) and identifying as Hispanic (OR=4.93, 95% CI=1.20-18.77, p=.03) increased the odds of gaining abstinence. Discussion: Having a live-in partner, Hispanic status, greater cigarette dependence, and recent cannabis use were associated with gaining abstinence. These findings provide insight into an understudied area, contributing an initial framework toward understanding gaining abstinence following initial failure.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Addictive Behaviors
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    • "On the other hand, decisional balance reflects the smoker's relative weighing of the pros and cons of quitting smoking and self-efficacy is defined as the belief in smoker " s ability to perform the behaviors necessary for quitting smoking outcome. In addition, many factors both Western and Asian reviews had a crucial role in relation to quit smoking among adult such as age, sex, marital status, length of quit attempt and family support (Hyland, et al. 2004; Ferguson, et al. 2003; Osler and Prescott 1998,) Most of these studies have been reported from western countries, it is unclear whether the findings are applicable to the East Asian population who have a different culture especially in the military group. "
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    ABSTRACT: Quitting smoking is clearly important for health and it is worthwhile attempting to gain a better understanding of factors that may help or hinder the process. The purpose of this study was to explore smoking cessation behavior among RTN personnel with the Transtheoretical Model. A multi-stage random sampling was employed to obtain the sample of 553 RTN personnel who had quitting smoking experiences for at least 24 hours in the past year. Data were used to analyze the predictors by logistic regression analyses. The main findings were: (1) 41.6% were in pre-contemplation, 13.2% were in contemplation, 19.3% were in preparation, 24.1% were in action 2.4% were in maintenance.(2) different age, education and marital status groups had no significantly different in quitting smoking. (3) Length of Past Quit Attempt 1.05 (95% CI =1.04-1.06), Family Support 1.51 (95% CI = 1.06-2.15), Conscious Raising 1.5 (95% CI =1.06-2.15), Social Liberation .81 (95% CI =.73-.90), Self-reevaluation .84 (95% CI =.0.75-0.94), Counter Conditioning 1.15 (95% CI=1.03-1.29) were predictive factors of quitting smoking among the RTN personnel and the best equation of logistic regression for explaining 56.5% of the variance in quitting smoking. This study provides further evidence in designing interventions, the stage of change needs to be assessed prior to application of intervention programs in order to increase and maintain quitting smoking behavior.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences
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    • "Awareness of risks is the most commonly cited motivation to quit smoking, both by current and former smokers. It is also a better predictor for longterm abstinence before quitting (Hammond et al., 2004a; Hyland et al., 2004) and adopting healthy life styles has ever been associated with decreased development of chronic morbidities related to smoking (Tayyem et al., 2013; Luqman et al., 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Smoking tobacco is considered as a leading cause of preventable death, mostly in developing countries like India. One of the primary goals of international tobacco control is to educate smokers about the risks associated with tobacco consumption. Tobacco warning labels (TWLs) on cigarette packages are one of the most common statutory means to communicate health risks of smoking to smokers, with the hope that once educated, they will be more likely to quit the habit. Materials and methods: The present survey was conducted to assess the effectiveness of TWLs in communicating health risks of tobacco usage among 263 adult smokers working as bus drivers in Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC), Mangalore, India. Information was collected on demographic details, exposure and response to health warnings on tobacco products, intention to quit and nicotine dependency. Results: The majority (79.5%) of the respondents revealed negative intentions towards quitting smoking. Nearly half of the participants had a 'low' nicotine dependency (47.5%) and 98.1% of the respondents had often noticed warning labels on tobacco packages. These health warnings made 71.5% of the respondents think about quitting smoking. Respondents who noticed advertisement or pictures about dangers of smoking had better knowledge, with respect to lung cancer and impotence as a consequence of tobacco. A higher exposure to warning labels was significantly associated with lower nicotine dependency levels of smokers among the present study population. A significantly higher number of respondents who noticed advertisement or pictures about the dangers of smoking thought about the risks of smoking and were more inclined to think about quitting smoking. As exposure increased, an increase in the knowledge and response of participants was also observed. Conclusions: Exposure to tobacco warning labels helps to educate smokers about health risks of tobacco smoking. It may be possible to promote oral health among bus drivers by developing strategies to educate them about these risk factors.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP
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