Article

Gender differences for nonfatal unintentional fall-related injuries

National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA.
Injury Prevention (Impact Factor: 1.89). 05/2005; 11(2):115-9. DOI: 10.1136/ip.2004.005835
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

To quantify gender differences for non-fatal unintentional fall related injuries among US adults age 65 years and older treated in hospital emergency departments (EDs).
The authors analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of ED visits for January 2001 through December 2001, available through the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP). For each initial ED visit, coders record one principal diagnosis (usually the most severe) and one primary part of the body affected.
Based on 22,560 cases, an estimated 1.64 million older adults were treated in EDs for unintentional fall injuries. Of these, approximately 1.16 million, or 70.5%, were women. Fractures, contusions/abrasions, and lacerations accounted for more than three quarters of all injuries. Rates for injury diagnoses were generally higher among women, most notably for fractures which were 2.2 times higher than for men. For all parts of the body, women's injury rates exceeded those of men. Rate ratios were greatest for injuries of the leg/foot (2.3), arm/hand (2.0), and lower trunk (2.0). The hospitalization rate for women was 1.8 times that for men.
Among older adults, non-fatal fall related injuries disproportionately affected women. Much is known about effective fall prevention strategies. We need to refine, promote, and implement these interventions. Additional research is needed to tailor interventions for different populations and to determine gender differences in the underlying causes and/or circumstances of falls. This information is vital for developing and implementing targeted fall prevention strategies.

    • "Persons aged 60 and above represent the fastest-growing sector of the worldwide population—a great triumph of humanity, but also a great economic challenge. In persons aged 65 and above, falling is the leading cause of both fatal and nonfatal injury [1], with approximately 28–36% of persons in this cohort falling each year [2]. In 2000, falls among the elderly in the U.S. accounted for over $19 billion in direct medical costs [3]; this economic burden is expected to increase in the future. "
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    ABSTRACT: Falling is the leading cause of both fatal and nonfatal injury in the elderly, often requiring expensive hospitalization and rehabilitation. We study the stability of human balance during stance using inverted single- and double-pendulum models, accounting for physiological reflex delays in the controller. The governing second-order neutral delay differential equation (NDDE) is transformed into an equivalent partial differential equation (PDE) constrained by a boundary condition and then into a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) using the Galerkin method. The stability of the ODE system approximates that of the original NDDE system; convergence is achieved by increasing the number of terms used in the Galerkin approximation. We validate our formulation by deriving analytical expressions for the stability margins of the double-pendulum human stance model. Numerical examples demonstrate that proportional-derivative-acceleration (PDA) feedback generally, but not always, results in larger stability margins than proportional-derivative (PD) feedback in the presence of reflex delays.
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    • "Deaths attributed to falls have risen in recent years and are projected to rise alongside growth of the older population in the United States over the coming decades (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012; Rubenstein, 2006). The causal mechanisms underlying falls are multifactorial, resulting from a combination of environmental obstacles and increasing functional impairment; however, a variety of sociodemographic variables , health indicators, and behaviors can also contribute to an individual's risk of falling (de Guzman et al., 2013; Stevens & Sogolow, 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: This study aims to examine the relationship between middle-aged and older adults' depressive symptomology and anti-depressant use and the frequency of falls within the previous 12 months, controlling for sociodemographic variables, health indicators, and health behaviors. From the 2010 National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, 2338 cases were examined. Falls were categorized into a binary variable, comparing zero falls with one or more falls. An unadjusted model was run to examine the relationship between independent and dependent variables. Potential covariates were added into the model, and backward elimination was used among independent variables with a univariate P < 0.05 to identify the covariates with the strongest association with falls. This final adjusted binary logistic regression model was then used to examine the relationship between falls and the independent variables. In the adjusted model, anti-depressant use was positively associated with falls (P = 0.001), as was being female (P < 0.001), having diabetes (P = 0.018), and having increased limitations in daily activities (P < 0.001). The relationship between depressive symptomology and anti-depressant prescription was also significantly associated with falls (P = 0.006). While findings confirm that a relationship between depressive symptomology and anti-depressant use are associated with falls among middle-aged and older adults, additional studies are needed that simultaneously examine the influence of these two risk factors.
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    • "The results of another Finnish study indicate that the elderly, especially older men are more likely to falls as they age (Lehtola et al. 2006). However, some other studies concerning gender differences in falls reveal that elderly women are more at risk of falling than men (Yasumura et al. 1994; Marcela and Dourado 2012; Stevens and Sogolow 2005). Saveman and Björnstig (2011), in their study on unintentional injuries among elderly population in north of Sweden, show that senior citizens aged 85 years and older are three times as likely as those aged 65–74 to experience injuries. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study assesses the nature and the geography of elderly injuries in Sweden. The most dominant types of accidents affecting the elderly in their homes and near environments are identified by using county-specific data from 2001 to 2010 followed by a correlation analysis of possible environmental factors underlying patterns of falls among the elderly. Geographical information systems are used to map rates by type. Slipping, tripping and stumbling are the causes of more than half of cases of elderly falls in Sweden, and is more typical in the Northern counties. Findings also show there has been a rise in rates of elderly falls since 2001 in most of the Southern counties, especially in O¨ stergo¨tland and Ska°ne Counties. Population age and gender affect the ecology of geography of fall rates and counties experiencing long cold winters tend to show higher rates of indoor falls than those with warmer temperature across the year. The article finalizes with a discussion of the results and implication for future researc
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