Article

Transformations of Leadership

Boston College, USA, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
Harvard business review (Impact Factor: 1.27). 05/2005; 83(4):66-76, 133.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Most developmental psychologists agree that what differentiates one leader from another is not so much philosophy of leadership, personality, or style of management. Rather, it's internal "action logic"--how a leader interprets the surroundings and reacts when his or her power or safety is challenged. Relatively few leaders, however, try to understand their action logic, and fewer still have explored the possibility of changing it. They should, because leaders who undertake this voyage of personal understanding and development can transform not only their own capabilities but also those of their companies. The authors draw on 25 years of consulting experience and collaboration with psychologist Susanne Cook-Greuter to present a typology of leadership based on the way managers personally make sense of the world around them. Rooke and Torbert classify leaders into seven distinct actionlogic categories: Opportunists, Diplomats, Experts, Achievers, Individualists, Strategists, and Alchemists-the first three associated with below-average performance, the latter four with medium to high performance. These leadership styles are not fixed, the authors say, and executives who are willing to work at developing themselves and becoming more self-aware can almost certainly move toward one of the more effective action logics. A Diplomat, for instance, can succeed through hard work and self-reflection at transforming himself into a Strategist. Few people may become Alchemists, but many will have the desire and potential to become Individualists and Strategists. Corporations that help their executives and leadership teams to examine their action logics can reap rich rewards.

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Available from: William Torbert, Jun 24, 2014
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    • "More importantly, a lack of critical thinking skills translates into an inability to lead (and become future leaders) (Flores, et al., 2012). The problem has already manifested itself in the workplace because most leaders lack strong critical thinking skills (Rooke & Torbert, 2005). Examples of this as identified in the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) User Manual (Insight Assessment, 2015) are seen in " dangerous and costly errors, repeated mistakes, bad decisions, failed systems, inaction when action is needed, the giving of bad advice, inaccurate assumptions, and the lack of anticipated action " (p. "

    Preview · Article · Oct 2015
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    • "As individuals engage in vertical development opportunities, they possess an increasing capacity to discern, interpret, and make sense of the world, the complexity encountered , and an understanding of their own actions in relationship to more complex environments (Petrie, 2011). Rooke and Torbert (2005) add that those who vertically develop become aware of " how they interpret their surroundings and react when their power or safety is challenged " (p. 1), made possible due to an increase in their own mental complexity; simply put, " their minds grow bigger " (Petrie, 2011, p. 12). "
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    • "These are the capacities that have been found to evolve at postconventional levels of development (Cook-Greuter, 1999; Hewlett, 2004; Kegan, 1994; Miller & Cook-Greuter, 1994). Now more than ever, the world needs leaders who operate from post-conventional consciousness because of their transformational capacity, agility, creativity, flexibility and mature insight (Barker & Torbert, 2011; Cook-Greuter, 2004; Joiner & Josephs, 2007; Kegan & Lahey, 2009; Rooke & Torbert, 2005). This research explored whether development to post-conventional consciousness could be facilitated within Australian community leadership programs. "
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