Effect of kidney transplantation on left ventricular systolic dysfunction and congestive heart failure in patients with end-stage renal disease

Department of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland, United States
Journal of the American College of Cardiology (Impact Factor: 16.5). 04/2005; 45(7):1051-60. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2004.11.061
Source: PubMed


We examined the impact of kidney transplantation on left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients with congestive heart failure (CHF).
The ESRD patients with decreased LVEF and a poor New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class are not usually referred for transplant evaluations, as they are considered to be at increased risk of cardiac and surgical complications.
Between June 1998 and November 2002, 103 recipients with LVEF < or =40% and CHF underwent kidney transplantation. The LVEF was re-assessed by radionuclide ventriculography gated-blood pool (MUGA) scan at six and 12 months and at the last follow-up during the post-transplant period.
Mean pre-transplant LVEF% increased from 31.6 +/- 6.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] 30.3 to 32.9) to 52.2 +/- 12.0 (95% CI 49.9 to 54.6, p = 0.002) at 12 months after transplantation. There was no perioperative death. After transplantation, 69.9% of patients achieved LVEF > or =50% (normal LVEF). A longer duration of dialysis (in months) before transplantation decreased the likelihood of normalization of LVEF in the post-transplant period (odds ratio 0.82, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.91; p < 0.001). The NYHA functional class improved significantly in those with normalization of LVEF (p = 0.003). After transplantation, LVEF >50% was the only significant factor associated with a lower hazard for death or hospitalizations for CHF (relative risk 0.90, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.95; p < 0.0001).
Kidney transplantation in ESRD patients with advanced systolic heart failure results in an increase in LVEF, improves functional status of CHF, and increases survival. To abrogate the adverse effects of prolonged dialysis on myocardial function, ESRD patients should be counseled for kidney transplantation as soon as the diagnosis of systolic heart failure is established.

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Available from: Cinthia B Drachenberg
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    • "Even though Wali et al have reported that patients with pretransplantation LVSD may show a 31.6% up to 47.2% increase of LVEF at 6 months post-transplantation (P ¼ .001) [5], it is true that others have observed that pretransplantation HF is a risk factor for renal graft loss [7]. The influence of LVSD on the renal transplant has not been analyzed up to now. "
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    ABSTRACT: A significant number of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have cardiac abnormalities, and left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) is a common manifestation. Our hypothesis is that a decrease in the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) at the time of kidney transplantation is a factor of poor prognosis associated with poor graft evolution. A total of 954 kidney transplantations were performed in our center between 2005 and 2012. Nineteen (2%) of these patients had been diagnosed with left ventricular dysfunction that was defined by the presence of LVEF <50% on echocardiography. This group of patients was compared with a control group of recipients without LVSD who had received the contralateral kidney from the same donor. During a mean follow-up of 52 ± 14 months, it was observed that the patients with LVSD had a higher incidence of delayed graft function (DGF) as well as a significantly longer renal function recovery period than in the control group until they became dialysis free (19.8 [range, 0-90] vs 12 [range, 0-36] days; P = .01). Furthermore, graft function achieved by the LVSD group was worse during the evolution (serum creatinine 2.3 ± 1.9 vs 1.4 ± 0.5 mg/dL; P = .01). Patients with LVSD showed worse kidney graft survival at the end of the follow-up when compared with the control group (79% vs 100%; P = .03). Systolic dysfunction of the renal transplant recipient is associated with greater delay in graft function and worse graft survival with poorer renal function. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Transplantation Proceedings
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    • "In general, correction of the uremic state by renal transplantation leads to improvement of LV structure and function. Prior studies, not using VVI technology, demonstrated that there were structural and functional improvements in cardiac indices post kidney transplantation.15)16) Wali et al.15) reported that kidney transplantation in end stage renal disease patients with advanced systolic heart failure resulted in an increase in LVEF. "
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    ABSTRACT: To quantify changes of left ventricular (LV) torsion in patients' pre and post kidney transplantation. A prospective study was conducted on 48 patients who received kidney transplantation for end stage renal disease and without myocardial infarction. The rotation, twist and torsion of LV were studied pre and post kidney transplantation (6 months post transplantation) using velocity vector imaging by echocardiography. The data is expressed as mean ± standard deviation and compared by paired t-test at the p < 0.05 significance level. Six months post kidney transplantation, left ventricular ejection fraction (from 40.33 ± 11.42 to 61.00 ± 13.68%), ratio of mitral early and late diastolic filling velocity (from 1.04 ± 0.57 to 1.21 ± 0.52), rotation of basal LV (from 4.48 ± 2.66 to 5.65 ± 2.64 degree), rotation of apical LV (from 4.27 ± 3.08 to 5.50 ± 4.25 degree), LV twist (8.75 ± 4.45 to 11.14 ± 5.25 degree) and torsion (from 1.06 ± 0.54 to 1.33 ± 0.61 degree/cm) were increased significantly (p < 0.05). Interventricular septum thickness (from 11.67 ± 2.39 to 9.67 ± 0.48 mm), left ventricular mass index (from 104.00 ± 16.47 to 95.50 ± 21.44 g/m(2)), systolic blood pressure (from 143.50 ± 34.99 to 121.50 ± 7.09 mmHg), serum blood urea nitrogen (from 42.40 ± 7.98 to 30.43 ± 13.85 mg/dL) and creatinine (from 4.53 ± 1.96 to 2.73 ± 2.57 mg/dL) were decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Kidney transplantation in end stage renal disease without myocardial infarction results in improvement in left ventricular structure, function and myocardial mechanics as detected by echocardiography and velocity vector imaging. Velocity vector imaging provided valuable information for detection and follow-up of cardiac abnormalities in patients with end stage renal disease.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Journal of cardiovascular ultrasound
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    • "Eligible patients should receive PKT, which may reduce morbidity and mortality, the need for vascular access, and the cost of dialysis. Prolonged hemodialysis duration may result in cardiovascular morbidities even after successful transplantation.7,8 In our study, we demonstrated that new onset hypertension rates were significantly higher in NPKT recipients. "
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    ABSTRACT: For suitable patients with end-stage renal disease, kidney transplantation (KT) is the best renal replacement therapy, resulting in lower morbidity and mortality rates and improved quality of life. Preemptive kidney transplantation (PKT) is defined as transplantation performed before initiation of maintenance dialysis and reported to be associated with superior outcomes of graft and patient survival. In our study, we aimed to compare the 5-year outcomes of PKT and nonpreemptive kidney transplantation (NPKT) patients who received KT in our center, to define the differences according to complications, comorbidities, adverse effects, clinical symptoms, periodical laboratory parameters, rejection episodes, graft, and patient survival. One hundred kidney transplantation (37 PKT, 63 NPKT) recipients were included in our study. All patients were evaluated for adverse effects, complications, comorbidities, clinical symptoms, monthly laboratory parameters, acute rejection episodes, graft, and patient survival. Acute rejection episodes were found to be significantly correlated with graft loss in both groups (P = 0.02 and P = 0.01, respectively). Hypertension after transplantation was diagnosed by ambulatory blood pressure measurement in 74 of 100 patients. Twenty-five of 37 (67.6%) of Group 1 (PKT) recipients had hypertension while 54 of 63 (85.4%) of Group 2 (NPKT) had hypertension. The incidence of hypertension between two groups was statistically significant (P = 0.03), but this finding was not correlated to graft survival (P = 0.07). Some patients had serious infections, requiring hospitalization, and were treated immediately. Infection rates between the two groups were 10.8% for Group 1 patients and 31.7% for Group 2 patients and were statistically significant (P = 0.02). Infection, requiring hospitalization, was found to be statistically correlated to graft loss in only NPKT patients (P = 0.00). While the comparison of PKT and graft and patient survival with NPKT is poorer than we expected, lower morbidity rates of hypertension and infection are similar with recent data. Avoidance of dialysis-associated comorbidities, diminished immune response, and cardiovascular complications are the main benefits of PKT.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
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