Involvement of matrix metalloproteinase-7 in invasion-metastasis through induction of cell dissociation in pancreatic cancer
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway was isolated as invasion-metastasis related factor in pancreatic cancer in our previous studies. Matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) and tight junction (TJ) proteins are indicated to be involved in cancer invasion-metastasis. To clarify the underlying mechanism of involvement of MMP-7 in cancer invasion, western blotting, invasion assay and immunohistochemistry were performed in dissociated (PC-1.0 and AsPC-1) and non-dissociated (PC-1 and Capan-2) pancreatic cancer cells, as well as pancreatic cancer tissues. Intracellular MMP-7 protein presented as pre-proenzyme and its expression was decreased by AG1478 (EGFR inhibitor) or U0126 (MEK inhibitor) treatment in pancreatic cancer cells. Activated MMP-7 protein was only detected in the medium of PC-1.0 and AsPC-1 cells, but not detected in the medium of PC-1 and Capan-2 cells. Moreover, MMP-7 treatment significant induced the dissociation of cell colonies in PC-1 and Capan-2 cells. Synchronously, TJ structure was apparently disrupted and translocation of TJ proteins to cytoplasm or extracellular medium was induced in PC-1 and Capan-2 cells. Furthermore, MMP-7 treatment markedly increased the in vitro invasion of PC-1 and Capan-2 cells. In addition, MMP-7 expression at the invasive front was obviously stronger than that at the center of pancreatic cancer tissues. Activation of MMP-7 protein is closely involved in disruption of TJ structure and consequent induction of cell dissociation as well as invasion in pancreatic cancer. EGFR mediated MEK/ERK signaling pathway is implied to be involved in regulation of MMP-7 expression in pancreatic cancer cells.
Available from: Konstantinos Konstantopoulos
- "This finding is in line with previous observations showing that MMP-7 plays a crucial role in the regulation of colon and gastric cancer cell migration3738. Of note, activation of MMP-7 may also be involved in the induction of pancreatic carcinoma cell dissociation and disruption of tight junctions from the primary tumor tissue39. "
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ABSTRACT: Mesothelin (MSLN) and cancer antigen125/mucin 16 (CA125/MUC16) are potential biomarkers for pancreatic cancer (PC) that are co-overexpressed at the invading edges of PC tissues, and their expression correlates with poor survival rates. However, the role of MSLN-MUC16 molecular interaction in PC cell motility and invasion has yet to be elucidated. Using sophisticated bioengineering and molecular biology tools, we report that the binding of MSLN to MUC16 markedly enhances PC cell motility and invasion via the selective induction of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-7. MSLN-mediated MMP-7 upregulation in MUC16-expressing PC cells occurs via a p38 MAPK-dependent pathway. Depletion of MMP-7 or inhibition of p38 activity abolishes MSLN-mediated PC motility and invasion. These findings provide a novel perspective on the enhanced invasive potential associated with MSLN and MUC16 co-overexpression, and the mechanism underlying MMP-7 activation in PC invasion and metastasis.
Available from: Hidetoshi Eguchi
- "Moreover, by processing E-cadherin and thereby inducing loose and then tight aggregation of tumor cells, this proteinase induces homotypic adhesion of human colorectal cancer cells and enhances the metastatic potential in vivo.35 By disrupting tight junction structure and a consequent induction of cell dissociation, MMP-7 might enhance metastasis as well as invasion of IHCC cells.36 "
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ABSTRACT: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHCC) is a highly malignant neoplasm, but the prognostic factors of IHCC are not yet fully understood. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are known to be related to tumor viability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of clinicopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of resected IHCC.
From 1996 to 2006, we surgically treated 35 patients with IHCC. Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics, including expression of MMPs, vascular endothelial growth factor, and epidermal growth factor receptor in the resected specimens, were investigated, and overall survival rates were evaluated with regard to the characteristics using univariate and multivariate analyses.
Univariate analysis revealed the significant prognostic factors to be preoperative serum CEA and CA19-9, intraoperative transfusion, tumor size, surgical margin, lymph node metastasis, invasion of portal and hepatic vein, intrahepatic metastasis, UICC stage, and expression of MMP-7. Subsequent multivariate analysis indicated that MMP-7 was an independent prognostic factor (hazard ratio (HR), 4.698; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.057-0.866; P = 0.03) along with intrahepatic metastasis (HR, 5.694; 95% CI, 0.029-0.706; P = 0.017).
MMP-7 expression is associated with a poor prognosis in patients with resected IHCC.
Available from: Chen Huang
- "According to studies that have used clinical samples of pancreatic cancer and pancreatic cancer cell lines, MMPs play important roles in tumor cell invasion and metastasis by degrading components of the basement membranes and extracellular matrix[32,33]. Specifically, activated Stat3 regulates tumor invasion of melanoma cells by regulating the gene transcription of MMP-2. "
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ABSTRACT: Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) is a member of the Janus-activated kinase(Jak)/Stat signaling pathway. Abnormal activation of Stat3 plays a critical role in metastasis and invasion in varieties of human tumors including pancreatic cancer. This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms of activation and blocking of the Stat3 signaling pathway and its effects on invasion and metastasis of human pancreatic cancer cells.
The Jak inhibitor AG490 and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were added to the culture media of human pancreatic cancer cells SW1990 and Capan-2, respectively. Cell growth was measured by MTT assays. Western blotting and immunocytochemistry were performed to detect phosphorylated Stat3 (p-Stat3) protein, while VEGF and MMP-2 mRNA and protein expression were examined with fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. The invasion ability of SW1990 and Capan-2 cells was determined by cell invasion assay.
Stat3 was activated by IL-6 in Capan-2 cells; protein expression of p-Stat3 was increased significantly in Capan-2 cells. IL-6 remarkably promoted the growth of Capan-2 cells (P < 0.05), and VEGF and MMP-2 mRNA and protein expression were increased significantly. Also, IL-6 increased the invasion ability of Capan-2 cells. AG490 inhibited Stat3 activation in SW1990 cells. Western blotting and immunocytochemistry analysis showed that p-Stat3 protein expression was decreased significantly with AG490 treatment in SW1990 cells. AG490 remarkably inhibited the growth of Capan-2 cells (P < 0.05), and VEGF and MMP-2 mRNA and protein expression was decreased significantly. And AG490 decreased the invasion ability of SW1990 cells.
Abnormal activation of Stat3 plays an important role in the invasion and metastasis of pancreatic cancer. Activation and blocking of the Stat3 signaling pathway can affect invasion ability and expression of the VEGF and MMP-2 genes in pancreatic cancer cells. The Stat3 signaling pathway may provide a novel therapeutic target for treatment of pancreatic cancer.
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