ArticleLiterature Review

VIRTOPSY—Scientific Documentation, Reconstruction and Animation in Forensic: Individual and Real 3D Data Based Geo-Metric Approach Including Optical Body/Object Surface and Radiological CT/MRI Scanning

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Abstract

Until today, most of the documentation of forensic relevant medical findings is limited to traditional 2D photography, 2D conventional radiographs, sketches and verbal description. There are still some limitations of the classic documentation in forensic science especially if a 3D documentation is necessary. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate new 3D real data based geo-metric technology approaches. This paper present approaches to a 3D geo-metric documentation of injuries on the body surface and internal injuries in the living and deceased cases. Using modern imaging methods such as photogrammetry, optical surface and radiological CT/MRI scanning in combination it could be demonstrated that a real, full 3D data based individual documentation of the body surface and internal structures is possible in a non-invasive and non-destructive manner. Using the data merging/fusing and animation possibilities, it is possible to answer reconstructive questions of the dynamic development of patterned injuries (morphologic imprints) and to evaluate the possibility, that they are matchable or linkable to suspected injury-causing instruments. For the first time, to our knowledge, the method of optical and radiological 3D scanning was used to document the forensic relevant injuries of human body in combination with vehicle damages. By this complementary documentation approach, individual forensic real data based analysis and animation were possible linking body injuries to vehicle deformations or damages. These data allow conclusions to be drawn for automobile accident research, optimization of vehicle safety (pedestrian and passenger) and for further development of crash dummies. Real 3D data based documentation opens a new horizon for scientific reconstruction and animation by bringing added value and a real quality improvement in forensic science.

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... Identification studies made by using radio diagnostic imaging for body and skeletal remains and metric measurement methods for osseous structures constitute one of the most interesting new methods in this field [8][9][10][11][12][13][14]. Osteometric measurements made with radiological methods has many advantages such as not requiring the cleaning of the bones, not being a bonedestructuring operation and being more practical and applicable than many other identification methods [11,15]. ...
... In addition to being used for age and sex determination by metric methods, craniums obtained from skeletal remains can also present a chance to make osteometric measurements depending on statistical basics through radiological imaging methods (such as two-way head graphy, lateral cephalometric graphy, multi-slice CT, 2 and 3 dimensional reconstructed CT, MR) (10,14). Morphometric analyses of the researchers based on these imaging methods constitute an opportunity to form extensive social databases. ...
... Thin slice opportunity, fast evaluation advantage, 3 dimensional evaluation opportunity and gradually decreasing imaging costs are prominent advantages [31]. In researches made on postmortem period; the elimination of macerationrelated ethical concerns, fast evaluation advantage and the wide research database formed against the difficulty in reaching bone collections are defined as the main advantages (8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13). ...
Article
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One of the main steps of identification process defining the individual in forensic medicine practice is age and sex determination. The aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of age and sex determination through bimastoid breadth measurement in cases where the cranium can be reached. In the study, the bimastoid breadth measurements were evaluated for 300 male and 300 female cases in 20-50 age group whose cranial computed tomography images were taken. First, length measurement was made in coronal plane on three-dimensional reconstructed computed tomography images. Then, through the measurement of the same length in the axial plane and in two-dimensional coronal plane, the verification was made for the values obtained before. These measurements made were also verified with the same three-staged verification by radiodiagnostic specialist. After determining exact measurement value, data was evaluated for the determination of sex differences. A statistically significant difference was detected for both sexes among the age groups in the study. Accuracy rates obtained by single discrimination analysis for the measured values were detected as 82.7% in females and 80% in males. A significant change was not detected in mastoid dimension with the advancing age on the examined population. As a result, while the morphometric measurements of bimastoid breadth provide a high ratio of dimorphism for sex determination in the modern Turkish population, there is no significant dimorphism for age determination. The obtained data demonstrates the importance of modern radiological methods and anthropometric studies in presenting anthropological data for age and sex determination.
... Forensic injury interpretation can be greatly enhanced by the use of 3D-surface documentation [1,2,3,4,5,6] also in conjunction with full-body [4,7] or full scene [8] scanning. The applications of forensic 3D juxtaposition or superimposition with relation to skin and bone injuries so far covered bite marks [3,9], other patterned skin injuries [1,2,4,10] as well as bone defects [11]. ...
... Forensic injury interpretation can be greatly enhanced by the use of 3D-surface documentation [1,2,3,4,5,6] also in conjunction with full-body [4,7] or full scene [8] scanning. The applications of forensic 3D juxtaposition or superimposition with relation to skin and bone injuries so far covered bite marks [3,9], other patterned skin injuries [1,2,4,10] as well as bone defects [11]. ...
... Forensic injury interpretation can be greatly enhanced by the use of 3D-surface documentation [1,2,3,4,5,6] also in conjunction with full-body [4,7] or full scene [8] scanning. The applications of forensic 3D juxtaposition or superimposition with relation to skin and bone injuries so far covered bite marks [3,9], other patterned skin injuries [1,2,4,10] as well as bone defects [11]. For the assumption of static forensic juxtapositioning to deliver informative 3D constellation visuals, a relatively orthogonal and otherwise rigid shape transfer from weapon or injury causing object to the victim's patterned injuries is assumed [12]. ...
Article
Forensic injury interpretation can be greatly enhanced by the use of 3D- surface documentation, also in conjunction with full body scans. For static jux- tapositioning, a rigid shape transfer from weapon or injury causing object to the victim's skin or bone will be assumed for patterned injuries, upon which an object's shape directly explains the shape of an injury. Forensic pathology expertise may be essential in reading the resulting 3D shape match attempts, particularly when in due process of injury causation, deformation of either the object/weapon or victim's tissues occurred, causing a dynamic rather than rigid shape transfer. In this case, a 3D match using manual forensic juxtapositioning of punctate and elongated striate forehead skin abrasions and a hairbrush yielded a par- tial but not perfect match. Qualitative medicolegal appreciation of the partial match result clearly indicated centrifugal brush bristle deformation after im- pact, causing a centrifugal abrasion pattern, thus having dynamically extended an initially stationary punctate abrasion and bristle end shape match. This was corroborated by both the elasticity of the bristles and the brush frame fracture. Presence and location of the fracture indicated a relatively high force between the brush handle on one hand and the bristles on the other.
... This was the first attempt to devise a multidisciplinary approach between forensic pathology and diagnostic radiology, leading to routine virtual autopsies. Nowadays, PMCT and PMMR, as well as angiographic imaging procedures, are an essential part of the forensic workup and serve as an adjunct to-or even a replacement for-autopsy [2,[24][25][26][27][28]. ...
... Despite an entire overview of pathologies with various etiologies (homicide, natural cause of death, or suicide), the major application for postmortem whole-body imaging is blunt trauma, usually homicide or traffic accidents, especially in children who sustained patterned injuries after being run over by a car. The soft tissue hemorrhages, combined with additional surface scanning, may help in reconstructing the incident and vastly enhance a postmortem exam (Figure 19.12) [24,71,[145][146][147]. Axial slices of the chest and/or abdomen, accompanying the coronal whole-body scan, provide much more detail than would PMCT alone (Figure 19.13). ...
Chapter
Chapter 19: Postmortem and Forensic Magnetic Resonance Imaging SUMMARY: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a technique used in biomedical imaging and radiology to visualize internal structures of the body. Because MRI provides excellent contrast between different soft tissues, the technique is especially useful for diagnostic imaging of the brain, muscles, and heart. In the past 20 years, MRI technology has improved significantly with the introduction of systems up to 7 Tesla (7 T) and with the development of numerous post-processing algorithms such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), functional MRI (fMRI), and spectroscopic imaging. From these developments, the diagnostic potentialities of MRI have improved impressively with an exceptional spatial resolution and the possibility of analyzing the morphology and function of several kinds of pathology. Given these exciting developments, the Magnetic Resonance Imaging Handbook: Imaging of the Pelvis, Musculoskeletal System, and Special Applications to CAD is a timely addition to the growing body of literature in the field. Offering comprehensive coverage of cutting-edge imaging modalities, this book: Discusses MRI of the urinary system, pelvis, spine, soft tissues, lymphatics, and brain Explains how MRI can be used in fetal, pediatric, forensic, postmortem, and computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) applications Highlights each organ’s anatomy and pathological processes with high-quality images Examines the protocols and potentialities of advanced MRI scanners such as 7 T systems Includes extensive references at the end of each chapter to enhance further study Thus, the Magnetic Resonance Imaging Handbook: Imaging of the Pelvis, Musculoskeletal System, and Special Applications to CAD provides radiologists and imaging specialists with a valuable, state-of-the-art reference on MRI.
... Currently, anthropologic methods are used in computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of bones of which sex and age are known and these imaging modalities have been known to help in differentiating between different segments of modern societies [16]. It is possible to examine the bones without needing the maceration processes, especially in decomposed bodies; the advantages of these methods include shortened examination time and no damage to the bone tissue [16,[21][22][23][24][25][26]. In morphometric analysis studies using CT images for sex estimation, it is seen that the results are similar to those of classical anthropological methods [27,28]. ...
... Currently, identification studies based on CT and MR images are carried out in forensic anthropology. There are numerous studies investigating the advantages and disadvantages of these methods to determine whether or not they can serve as alternatives to conventional methods [21][22][23][24][25][26]35]. Bone tissues should be prepared for examination by removing all soft tissues in unidentified decomposed bodies. ...
Article
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Sex determination is a major area of investigation in forensic anthropology. As technology has advanced, imaging methods such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are being investigated as alternatives to conventional forensic anthropological research techniques. This study aimed to investigate the suitability of three-dimensional (3D) modeling of volumetric cranial computed tomography (CCT) images for sex estimation from skull morphology. In this study, CCT angiography images from the Department of Radiology 2017 archives were used retrospectively, and 3D images were obtained after the reconstruction of 85 cases of CCT images. The sex-dependent morphological characteristics of the skull were evaluated by three blinded observers and scored on a scale of 1–5 points according to the “Standards for Data Collection from Human Skeletal Remains”. The accurate sex estimation rates of the first, second and third observers were 91.8, 92.9 and 92.9%, respectively. The rate of accurate sex estimation for males was 98–100%, while this rate varied between 83.3–86.1% for females. Consistency in sex estimation between the three observers was 83.5%, with a Kappa value of 0.763 (z = 12.2; p = 0.0001*). The glabella was the most effective morphological trait used to estimate sex. The results of this study show that sex can be estimated from morphological features in volume-rendered CCT 3D images. Thus, sex can be estimated by digital images without the need for maceration processes, and the transfer of digital data in place of physical material will make it possible to gain expert opinions in forensic anthropology.
... The modern high-resolution imaging like Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has been used as a well described aid in the setting of post-mortem investigations. [4][5][6] This paper explores the implication of virtopsy from ethical , clinical and technical point of view. In this article the history of forensic autopsy and the reasons for the gradual decrease in conventional autopsy rates over the last few decades have been briefly described. ...
... [18][19][20][21][22][23][24] The Virtopsy, or "virtual autopsy" was developed by Richard Dirnhofer, former Director of Forensic Medicine, Berne, which was then continued by his successor, Michel Thali and his colleagues at the University of Berne's Institute of Forensic Medicine, Switzerland. 1,4,24,25 A research team from the Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Berne, Switzerland suggested a project on virtopsy as an alternative to the conventional autopsy. Total number of 40 forensic cases until the year 2006 were examined through multislice CT (MSCT)/NMR and conventional autopsy and comparative evaluation of radiological and conventional autopsies was done taking five aspects into account viz. ...
Article
Virtopsy is a virtual alternative to a traditional autopsy, conducted with scanning and imaging technology. In developed countries Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are now being evaluated as complementary means for determination of cause of death. This paper explores the latest development and implication of virtopsy from ethical, clinical and technical point of view. Published literature in different journals with strict inclusion and exclusion criteria were extensively reviewed through use of general and Meta search engines to elucidate the applications and implications of virtual autopsy. The modern high-resolution imaging has been used as a well described aid in the setting of post-mortem investigations. Virtopsy introduces a new era in autopsy examination. It utilizes the technological innovation of modern imaging system to obtain best results and three Dimensional (3D) images of the body in multiple plains without mutilation of the human body. Now a days virtopsy is very much acceptable procedure to the forensic society. In western worlds virtopsy is likely to replace conventional autopsies in future. We can also try to implement this modern system in our country. KYAMC Journal.2021;12(1): 48-52
... Ethical issues including retention of organs after autopsy [1] and financial considerations [2] may have contributed to a global decrease in autopsy rates [3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11]. Virtual autopsy (Virtopsy) [12], in the form of MRI or computed tomography (CT) post-mortem investigation, could reduce the financial and physical/psychological burden [4,5,[13][14][15][16][17][18][19] of autopsies, as well as appease fears and increase the autopsy rate amongst large populations of individuals with strong traditional, religious or cultural concerns [20]. Previous reviews still considered both, autopsy and virtopsy, supplementing each other [21,22]. ...
... This procedure causes considerable shrinkage of the brain with a volume loss of up to 60%. Different shrinkages of the brain's white and grey matter during dehydration and embedding are additional confounders causing further brain deformation [12]. ...
Article
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Abstract Enhanced resolution of 7 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners has considerably advanced our knowledge of structure and function in human and animal brains. Post-industrialized countries are particularly prone to an ever-increasing number of ageing individuals and ageing-associated neurodegenerative diseases. Neurodegenerative diseases are associated with volume loss in the affected brain. MRI diagnoses and monitoring of subtle volume changes in the ageing/diseased brains have the potential to become standard diagnostic tools. Even with the superior resolution of 7 T MRI scanners, the microstructural changes comprising cell types, cell numbers, and cellular processes, are still undetectable. Knowledge of origin, nature, and progression for microstructural changes are necessary to understand pathogenetic stages in the relentless neurodegenerative diseases, as well as to develop therapeutic tools that delay or stop neurodegenerative processes at their earliest stage. We illustrate the gap in resolution by comparing the identical regions of the post-mortem in situ 7 T MR images (virtual autopsy or virtopsy) with the histological observations in serial sections through the same brain. We also described the protocols and limitations associated with these comparisons, as well as the necessity of supercomputers and data management for “Big data”. Analysis of neuron and/or glial number by using a body of mathematical tools and guidelines (stereology) is time-consuming, cumbersome, and still restricted to trained human investigators. Development of tools based on machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) could considerably accelerate studies on localization, onset, and progression of neuron loss. Finally, these observations could disentangle the mechanisms of volume loss into stages of reversible atrophy and/or irreversible fatal cell death. This AI- and ML-based cooperation between virtopsy and histology could bridge the present gap between virtual reality and neuropathology. It could also culminate in the creation of an imaging-associated comprehensive database. This database would include genetic, clinical, epidemiological, and technical aspects that could help to alleviate or even stop the adverse effects of neurodegenerative diseases on affected individuals, their families, and society.
... In addition, all the objects and people in a crime scene can always be visualized in the photographs, but their dimensions and actual location in the 3D space cannot be recovered from a single photograph. Recently, new forms of documentation such as laser scanners, structured-light scanners, and photogrammetry are increasingly used in forensic investigations [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8]. These techniques enable a 3D documentation of the actual crime scene and of any evidence, including bodies. ...
... Alternative workflows have been proposed, for example, by the VIRTOPSY group [4,16,24,29]. The obtained 3D models of the bodies are very detailed, accurate and precise. ...
Chapter
Recently, new forms of documentation such as photogrammetry are increasingly used in forensic sciences. Photogrammetry enables an actual 3D recording of crime scenes. This technique can be used to extract 3D models of an object in digital form (coordinates and derived geometric elements, e.g. measurements, surface, area) or graphical form (sketches, maps). Photogrammetry can be applied on large and small scale, from landscape to fingerprints. The aim of this chapter is to introduce forensic experts to the principles and applications of photogrammetry for 3D recording of crime scenes, evidence, and people (living or deceased individuals). Some applications in forensic pathology, including the integration of photogrammetry with post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT), are presented.
... Three-dimensional (3D) imaging modalities (including computed tomography [CT], magnetic resonance [MR] imaging, surface scanning [132], and photogrammetry [133]), together with 3D printing [134], augmented reality (AR) [135], and virtual reality (VR) [136] technologies) are also finding use in the medicolegal sphere. ...
Article
Veterinary forensics is rapidly emerging as a distinct branch of veterinary medicine, especially because of increasing mindfulness about animal cruelty, and of the link between acts of cruelty to animals and violence toward humans. Nevertheless, the application of forensic sciences in veterinary cases lags behind its application in medical cases. Although gaps persist in veterinarians' knowledge of forensics and in how to apply this field to medicolegal cases involving animals, continued research and publication in veterinary forensics are rapidly developing the evidence base in this area. Additionally, educational opportunities in veterinary forensics are also increasing at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Together, these changes will continue to improve veterinarians' abilities to investigate cases involving animals. To further strengthen these investigations, veterinarians should also collaborate with the appropriate experts in different disciplines of forensic science.
... Examination of the heart is vital in every autopsy to rule out any cardiac cause of death, especially in cases like sudden cardiac death in a young individual without any documented history of cardiac disease. It may not be possible to study the cardiac muscle pathology during a conventional autopsy and hence 3-D angiography technique is used to confirm or refute any underlying coronary artery disease [2][3][4] . In case of any injury to the blood vessel, there will be spillage of dye to the surrounding tissues, making it visible in the CT images. ...
... This instance foreshadowed the birth of virtopsy. 5 Virtopsy included 4 cornerstones namely 1. Three-dimensional (3D) surface scanning 3D/computeraided design photogrammetry 2. Multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) 3. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 4. MRI spectroscopy ...
... The Streifenlichttopometrie (SLT) structured light technique has been used by the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Germany since 1998 for forensic documentation (5). Additionally, since 2003 Advanced Topometric Sensor (ATOS) 3D surface scanners have been used in the Institutes of Forensic Medicine in Switzerland to scan traumatic injuries of living people and of the full surface of dead bodies, alongside other forensic items (2,(6)(7)(8)(9). Although the ATOS scanners are accurate and actively used, their application can be difficult and time-consuming. ...
... In such cases, the joint evaluation is of even higher importance. The morphometric 3D reconstruction [11,12] is based on the 3D documentation of the incident site [13,14], the involved cars and objects [15,16] and the deceased and / or injured [17][18][19][20][21][22][23]. Hence, it is a unique interdisciplinary approach for analysis and assessment. ...
Article
In traffic accidents, the differentiation of run-over and other injuries is crucial because questions about the origin of fatal injuries often arise. It is sometimes difficult for forensic pathologists to answer them due to the superimposition of injuries or competing, potentially fatal findings. Therefore, using morphometric three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions offers new perspectives based on an interdisciplinary evaluation of all findings and traces. The morphometric 3D reconstruction includes the allocation of patterned injuries or transferred material, the determination of the origin of injuries as well as the reconstruction of the incident. The generated 3D models of persons, clothes, vehicles, incident sites and relevant objects resulting from forensic imaging, photogrammetry, 3D structured-light and laser scanning are included, as are all detected traces and damages. Three case studies are presented to illustrate the possibilities and results of morphometric 3D reconstruction. Run-over accidents have received less attention than the topic of pedestrian, bicycle and motorbike accident analysis for which there is a large body of literature. Our goal is to add to the understanding of run-over accidents using morphometric reconstruction in order to improve their analysis in the future. The possibilities of morphometric reconstructions by means of 3D techniques in run-over accidents are wide-ranging and can provide new, unexpected and significant insights.
... Because of the complexity and the amount of data that can be available, this step can take a considerable amount of time. Subsequently, when the traces fit together, the reconstruction is performed, and the visualizations are created -either as 2D renderings or as virtual reality (VR) scenes [20,21]. Therefore, the final reconstruction can consist of multiple plausible scenarios that are dependent on the forensic question and the available traces, evidence and materials. ...
Article
Virtual reality is recently finding its way in forensic work. The required 3D data is nowadays a standard dataset available in many cases, from homicide to traffic collisions, including not only data from the scene but also of weaponry and involved persons. Current investigations use these 3D data to replicated the incident and as discussion base for forensic personal. However, modifying the scene on a 2D viewport is often cumbersome due to the loss of the third dimension. Also to perform the modifications on the scene a 3D operator is often required. Virtual reality might improve this step by its easy use and by visualising the third dimension. This publication presents a variety of tools which can be used in forensic investigations. Additionally to the tools, examples of forensic use of these tools will be presented, showing that already a small number of tools support a variety of forensic applications.
... This development is largely based on the increasing use of virtual autopsy, i.e., post-mortem CT and MRI data [132]. Since a cadaver does not move and radiation is not so strongly limited, the anatomy can be displayed with high quality. ...
Article
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Animation is a potentially powerful instrument to convey complex information with movements, smooth transitions between different states that employ the strong human capabilities to perceive and interpret motion. Animation is a natural choice to display time-dependent medical image data or unsteady biomedical simulation data where the dynamic nature of the data is mapped to a kind of video. Animation, however, may also be employed for static data, e.g., to move a camera along a predefined path to convey complex anatomical structures or the spatial relations around a pathology. Clipping planes may be smoothly translated and object transparency adapted to control visibility and further support emphasis of spatial relations, e.g., around a tumor. Virtual endoscopy, where the virtual camera is moved inside an air-filled or fluid-filled structure, is a prominent example of animating static data. Animations, however, are complex visualizations that may depict a larger number of changes in a short period of time. Thus, we also consider cognitive limitations, e.g., change blindness, and discuss methods to reduce the complexity of animations. Emphasis techniques may guide the viewer's attention and improve the perception of essential features. Finally, interaction beyond the typical video recorder functionality is considered. In this paper, we give a survey of medical animations and discuss the research potential that arises. Although we focus on medicine, the discussion of a research agenda is partially based on cartography, where animation is widely used.
... Postmortem angiography is used to visualize the cardiovascular system. 19,[20][21][22] Virtopsy procedures pertaining to imagistic technologies have contributed remarkably to the reconstruction of events, thus demonstrating their utility. The angle or axis and the impact of the force can be identified in cases of victims of road traffic accidents by the use of different technologies that come under virtopsy. ...
... Moreover, the 3D models generated from blurry frames were noisier than those obtained from photographs (Fig. 5). This did not have an impact on the measurements, but it may cause problems if the purpose is to combine 3D models from photogrammetry with 3D models obtained from CT-and MR-scanning [13][14][15]. ...
Article
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Accurate and precise documentation of lesions is an important aspect of the forensic pathologists’ work. Photogrammetry provides a useful tool to take precise measurements from photographs. These photographs are normally acquired with single camera photographs, but the procedure is quite time-consuming. Video recording has the potential to record a larger amount of image data faster. We documented 33 cadaveric skin lesions, using photographs and video recordings. The dimensions of the lesions ranged between 0.27 and 21.8 cm. The measurements of the lesions were extracted with both manual and automatic point measurements from photographs and from video frames, respectively. Very small differences (mean and median < 1 mm) were found between measurements taken in photographs versus video frames. Video frames were often blurred, preventing clear demarcation of the edges of the lesions and presenting a larger amount of noise in the 3D models. The differences between the manual point and automatic point measurements were very small (mean and median < 1 mm), but the manual procedure is to be preferred, since automatic points were not always located on the edges of the lesions. The only aspect in which video frames were superior to photographs was the recording time: video recording was almost five times faster than the photo sessions. In conclusion, this study shows that precise and comparable measurements can be extracted both from photographs and video frames. The video is the fastest method, but the use of photographs is still recommended. Manual measurements are more precise than automatic measurements and equally time-consuming.
... MRI also has disadvantages, including the inability to obtain images in a single section and the influence of patient-dependent factors [20]. In general, it is not appropriate to compare population-specific data acquired using different methodologies, as this can lead to clinical and forensic errors in the interpreting thereof [15,19,51,54,58,61]. The reliability of a given methodology can be determined by reference to the intra-and inter-observer reliability, these values were calculated for the orthopedist and radiologist who assessed the images in this study; the TEM data demonstrate that our study had high intra-and interobserver reliability. ...
Article
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Purpose Posterior tibial inclination of the knee joint should be considered during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and total knee replacement surgery. This inclination is called the posterior tibial slope (PTS) angle. The PTS differs among populations and the aim of this study was to determine the mean PTS in a Turkish population. Methods PTS was measured retrospectively on lateral knee X-rays (n = 1024). The angle between the line connecting the anterior and posterior points of the lateral tibial plateau and the tibial longitudinal axis was taken as the PTS angle. Intra- and inter-observer agreement regarding the measurements on 20 X-rays were checked. Results The mean PTS angle for the entire cohort was 8.36 ± 3.3° (range: 2.1–18.7°); it was 8.57 ± 3.4° (range: 2.3–17.4°) in men and 8.16 ± 3.2° (range: 2.1–18.7°) in women. Although no significant correlation was detected between PTS and age, PTS was higher in men than in women. Conclusion The increasing number of total knee replacement surgeries has increased the need for studies on implant mismatch. In this study, reference PTS values were determined for a Turkish population. It may be beneficial to use patient-specific implants in some cases.
... In human forensic medicine, the documentation of traumatic injuries with virtopsy enables the reconstruction and interpretation of the injury-causing instruments for forensic investigation [42,43]. In stranding cases involving vessel collision, virtopsy can potentially be applied in the future to analyse the injury patterns and deduce the causative instruments, notably the propellers that produce distinctive patterns of sharp force trauma. ...
Article
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Background Vessel collision induces blunt and sharp force traumas to aquatic animals and is a leading anthropogenic impact affecting cetaceans worldwide. Vessel collision is an important threat affecting vulnerable coastal cetaceans such as the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) which reside in coastal waters of Hong Kong amongst heavy marine traffic. Case presentation A severely injured subadult S. chinensis was sighted in the waters off southwestern Hong Kong with four gaping incision wounds on its dorsum. It was in poor body condition and seemed unable to use the fluke effectively. The deepest wound located at the caudal peduncle near the base of the fluke and exposed the underlying fractured caudal vertebrae. The dolphin was monitored in the field over three weeks and eventually captured for medical intervention as veterinary assessment indicated progressive and life-threatening deterioration. During rehabilitation, the dolphin demonstrated initial signs of improvement over the first 36 hours as supported by diagnostic tests but then deteriorated rapidly. It was humanely euthanised after three days of rehabilitation. Postmortem investigation was carried out using virtopsy (postmortem computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) and conventional necropsy, with special attention to the traumatic musculoskeletal injuries caused by vessel collision and also revealed acute gastrointestinal compromise and respiratory disease that further hampered the rehabilitation. Conclusion In cetaceans, the prognosis for recovery from injuries caused by vessel collision depends on the extent, location, and gravity of the injuries (i.e., superficial, deep, penetrating, blunt vs. sharp, fresh vs. septic), as well as the health status of the individual and its ability to respond to the insult. Injuries extending deep into the vertebral column may lead to delayed death and associated welfare issues. The prognosis of this case was likely poor given the severity and location of the injuries, but the attempted rehabilitation and postmortem investigation provided valuable insights for clinical management if similar cases are encountered in the future. Being able to non-invasively assess and document traumatic injuries and other pathologies, diagnostic imaging is particularly useful in the clinical assessment and postmortem investigation (virtopsy) of cases with vessel-induced injuries.
... The advantages of combining different imaging modalities in pedestrian-vehicle collisions had been realized early on. Thali et al. (18), for example, use a combination of surface scanning, photogrammetry, and Postmortem CT to document the injuries and match them onto the damage on the vehicle in another pedestrian-vehicle collision. As in the present case, the interpretation of how these injuries were caused relied on pathological expertise. ...
Article
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Three‐dimensional scanning and documentation methods are becoming increasingly employed by law enforcement personnel for crime scene and accident scene recording. Three‐dimensional documentation of the victim's body in such cases is also increasingly used as the field of forensic radiology and imaging is expanding rapidly. These scanning technologies enable a more complete and detailed documentation than standard autopsy. This was used to examine a fatal pedestrian‐vehicle collision where the pedestrian was killed by a van while crossing the road. Two competing scenarios were considered for the vehicle speed calculation: the pedestrian being projected forward by the impact or the pedestrian being carried on the vehicle's bonnet. In order to assist with this, the impact area of the accident vehicle was scanned using laser surface scanning, the victim was scanned using postmortem CT and micro‐CT and the data sets were combined to virtually match features of the vehicle to injuries on the victim. Micro‐CT revealed additional injuries not previously detected, lending support to the pedestrian‐carry theory.
... 3D surface scanning has been proven to be a simple, portable, and non-destructive tool for object information description in industrial quality control, heritage and archaeological applications, traffic accident recording, and plastic surgery [29,30]. In the forensic community, this scanning method is mainly used for the description of body surface, injuries, and specific objects related to criminal investigations [31][32][33][34]. Notably, an attempt was made by Sholts et al. to digitally isolate sexually dimorphic traits on the craniofacial skeletons using a 3D surface scanner and transform them as continuous variables for individual estimation [35]. ...
Article
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Deep learning based on radiological methods has attracted considerable attention in forensic anthropology because of its superior classification capacities over human experts. However, radiological instruments are limited in their nature of high cost and immobility. Here, we integrated a deep learning algorithm and three-dimensional (3D) surface scanning technique into a portable system for pelvic sex estimation. Briefly, the images of the ventral pubis (VP), dorsal pubis (DP), and greater sciatic notch (GSN) were cropped from virtual pelvic samples reconstructed from CT scans of 1000 individuals; 80% of them were used to train and internally evaluate convolutional neural networks (CNNs) that were then evaluated externally with the remaining samples. An additional 105 real pelvises were documented virtually with a handheld 3D surface scanner, and the corresponding snapshots of the VP, DP, and GSN were predicted by the trained CNN models. The CNN models achieved excellent performance in the external testing using CT-based images, with accuracies of 98.0%, 98.5%, and 94.0% for VP, DP, and GSN, respectively. When the CT-based models were applied to 3D scanning images, they obtained satisfactory accuracies above 95% on the VP and DP images compared to the GSN with 73.3%. In a single-blind trial, a multiple design that combined the three CNN models yielded a superior accuracy of 97.1% with 3D surface scanning images over two anthropologists. Our study demonstrates the great potential of deep learning and 3D surface scanning for rapid and accurate sex estimation of skeletal remains.
... De la revisión de los restos óseos es posible y frecuente que el perito requiera de diversos estudios complementarios para diagnosticar alguno de los parámetros del perfil biológico y/o individualizante, los más comunes son radiografías, tomografías o microtomografías (e.g. Angyal and Dérczy, 1998;Brogdon, 1998;Thali et al., 2005;Christensen et al., 2014;Jalalzadeh et al., 2015). Aunque también puede necesitarse escaneos de superficie para la obtención de modelo 3D, análisis de histomorfología (e.g. ...
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Con el advenimiento de los drones y el abaratamiento de los sensores que pueden ponerse a bordo, se ha abierto la puerta para complementar el trabajo de campo que de por sí realizan las brigadas de búsqueda. Pero antes de correr a comprar un dron, debemos aprender sobre su potencial y sus limitaciones, así como conocer los sensores y las configuraciones que pueden ser más útiles en cada caso. En este capítulo se describen algunos aspectos de estas tecnologías y se dan recomendaciones puntuales para emplearlas en la búsqueda y detección de restos humanos en superficie y en el subsuelo. Aunque se ha hecho un esfuerzo por evitar el lenguaje técnico, en muchos casos podríamos haber fallado. Y es que muchas de las recomendaciones se sustentan en investigaciones científicas tan recientes, que deberá pasar un tiempo antes de que el lenguaje técnico sea mejor asimilado por los usuarios potenciales de este conocimiento.
... 3D optical scanning is a method used for 3D photogrammetry documentation and measurements in prototyping and design technology. This is a high precision technique that can document not only the ner details of structures like skin or an instrument to 8 complete documentation of the whole body or entire vehicle. ...
Article
Forensic Odontology is the branch of forensic science that deals with identication of the deceased in cases of mass disaster, natural calamities, crime scene etc. Virtopsy can be used as an alternative to autopsy as it uses scanning and imaging technology to detect ndings in corpses. It is a multi-disciplinary technology that combines forensic medicine and pathology, roentgenology, computer graphics, biomechanics, and physics . Virtopsy is rapidly gaining importance in the eld of forensics.
... 3D optical scanning is a method used for 3D photogrammetry documentation and measurements in prototyping and design technology. This is a high precision technique that can document not only the ner details of structures like skin or an instrument to 8 complete documentation of the whole body or entire vehicle. ...
Article
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Forensic Odontology is the branch of forensic science that deals with identication of the deceased in cases of mass disaster, natural calamities, crime scene etc. Virtopsy can be used as an alternative to autopsy as it uses scanning and imaging technology to detect ndings in corpses. It is a multidisciplinary technology that combines forensic medicine and pathology, roentgenology, computer graphics, biomechanics, and physics. Virtopsy is rapidly gaining importance in the eld of forensics. ABSTRACT
... Three-dimensional (3D) surface scanners make use of lasers or structured light patterns to capture the morphometry, geometry, and color of the surfaces of an object [21,22] and produces images that are of higher resolution than those prepared from conventional CT slice thicknesses [21]. The surface scanners can capture both the texture and color of bones which can provide information on surface modifications and taphonomy as well as being able to record fractures and ballistic trauma [16,20,21,23]. ...
Article
The use of imaging modalities is becoming increasingly popular in forensic anthropology. Imaging modalities that have been used in forensic anthropology to date include; surface scanning, photogrammetry, sonography, Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and conventional X-rays. Little is however, known about low-dose X-rays and its potential use in forensic anthropology. The aim of this review article is to briefly introduce the imaging modalities that have been used in forensic anthropology, by introducing their advantages and disadvantages, as well as highlighting its specific use in forensic anthropology, with emphasis on low-dose Xrays. Low-dose X-ray produces high resolution, full-body 2D images, without the need for image stitching, in less than 13 seconds. It is a user-friendly system that requires minimal training to operate and the setup thereof is cheaper than other imaging modalities. It was also found that low-dose X-rays often outperformed other imaging modalities. The use of low-dose X-ray in forensic anthropology is still in its infancy and as it is more frequently available and easily accessible in medico-legal laboratories, its full potential should be further explored.
... This development is largely based on the increasing use of virtual autopsy, i.e., post-mortem CT and MRI data [132]. Since a cadaver does not move and radiation is not so strongly limited, the anatomy can be displayed with high quality. ...
Article
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Animation is a potentially powerful instrument to convey complex information with movements, smooth transitions between different states that employ the strong human capabilities to perceive and interpret motion. Animation is a natural choice to display time-dependent medical image data or unsteady biomedical simulation data where the dynamic nature of the data is mapped to a kind of video. Animation, however, may also be employed for static data, e.g., to move a camera along a predefined path to convey complex anatomical structures or the spatial relations around a pathology. Clipping planes may be smoothly translated and object transparency adapted to control visibility and further support emphasis of spatial relations, e.g., around a tumor. Virtual endoscopy, where the virtual camera is moved inside an air-filled or fluid-filled structure, is a prominent example of animating static data. Animations, however, are complex visualizations that may depict a larger number of changes in a short period of time. Thus, we also consider cognitive limitations, e.g., change blindness, and discuss methods to reduce the complexity of animations. Emphasis techniques may guide the viewer’s attention and improve the perception of essential features. Finally, interaction beyond the typical video recorder functionality is considered. In this paper, we give a survey of medical animations and discuss the research potential that arises. Although we focus on medicine, the discussion of a research agenda is partially based on cartography, where animation is widely used.
... They also cited that the matching of the injury with even complex instruments can be achieved in the virtual space. The method has been validated in courts in Switzerland(Thali et al., 2005). ...
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... One of the very first publications on computed tomography (CT) of cranial bullet wounds dates back to 1977 and emphasizes its strength in the objective documentation of gunshot victims (1). However, postmortem imaging has only become a common and powerful diagnostic tool in forensics in the last 20 years (2)(3)(4). Postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) is often used currently to complement and sometimes even replace an autopsy (5)(6)(7). In gunshot-related deaths, it is easy to screen for and localize projectiles and their fragments with PMCT (8,9); moreover, it allows for a distinction of entry and exit wounds in severely altered bodies (9). ...
Article
Background Postmortem imaging has become a powerful diagnostic tool in forensics. Postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) is often used currently to complement and sometimes even replace an autopsy. Purpose To compare PMCT, postmortem magnetic resonance imaging (PMMRI), and autopsy findings for gunshot wounds to the head. Material and Methods Cross-sectional study. We performed a retrospective analysis of 24 cases with gunshot wounds to the head that underwent both PMCT and PMMRI between 2011 and 2018 at the Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Zurich (Switzerland). Results Our study confirms that PMCT and, to a slightly lesser degree, PMMRI provide additional information that is valuable when combined with autopsy findings. Air embolism was solely detected in PMCT (67% vs. 0% at autopsy). A retained bullet or projectile and bone fragments were diagnosed more frequently with PMCT (42%, 67%, and 92%) than at autopsy (33%, 42%, and 46%). Soft tissue lesions were more often detected with PMMRI than with PMCT. With regard to autopsy, subdural hemorrhage and ventricular hemorrhage were slightly more frequently diagnosed with PMMRI (63% and 75% vs. 38% and 58% at autopsy). Intracerebral hemorrhage was by far most often diagnosed with PMMRI (92%) compared with both PMCT (38%) and autopsy (14%). Conclusion All three modalities should ideally be considered in cases of craniocerebral gunshot wounds. However, it might be conceivable that depending on the forensic query, PMCT and PMMRI may be an adequate replacement for an autopsy.
... The assemblage of all forensic data and their graphical representation may be time consuming and not always remain free of apparent contradictions. Photographical documentation, supplemented by three-dimensional techniques like photogrammetry and laser scanning [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9], can be used for this task. These latter techniques allow to reconstruct and represent a crime scene in a virtual 3D space. ...
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This study explores the magnitude of two sources of error that are introduced when extracorporeal bullet trajectories are based on post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) and/or surface scanning of a body. The first source of error is caused by an altered gravitational pull on soft tissue, which is introduced when a body is scanned in another position than it had when hit. The second source of error is introduced when scanned images are translated into a virtual representation of the victim’s body. To study the combined magnitude of these errors, virtual shooting trajectories with known vertical angles through five “victims” (live test persons) were simulated. The positions of the simulated wounds on the bodies were marked, with the victims in upright positions. Next, the victims were scanned in supine position, using 3D surface scanning, similar to a body’s position when scanned during a PMCT. Seven experts, used to working with 3D data, were asked to determine the bullet trajectories based on the virtual representations of the bodies. The errors between the known and determined trajectories were analysed and discussed. The results of this study give a feel for the magnitude of the introduced errors and can be used to reconstruct actual shooting incidents using PMCT data.
... The use of 3D digitization is advancing rapidly, even in medicine, and computed tomography (CT) is commonly used for documentation purposes and the subsequent reconstruction of 3D models [2][3][4]. In forensic pathology, postmortem CT (PMCT) is used to guide forensic pathologists during an autopsy and to help document and preserve traces [5]. ...
Article
With advances in digitalization, the industrial, education, and research sectors have made use of novel methods to train their staff and students. Simulations and visualizations of real-life situations allow effective and tailored learning strategies. In medicine, the advancement of three-dimensional (3D) surface documentation technologies, particularly close-range photogrammetry, are used to document pathologies or procedural steps in 3D. Subsequently created 3D models enhanced by adding annotations, incision lines, explanations, and animations can be used for educational purposes. In this paper, we describe possible ways to improve or extend actual learning methods in medical teaching and show a concept for possible application. As various teaching tools already exist, we aim to add a teaching approach using 3D visualization. Therefore, a forensic dissection of the neck was documented in 3D, annotated and prepared for teaching using animated videos, 3D PDFs and virtual reality. In the future, the dissection of each body part and organ will be documented using the procedure presented in this paper. The aim of this method is to provide a technique to teach human anatomy and autopsy steps to both medical students and forensic pathologists.
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Introduction: Post mortem examination is a process which is required to establish the exact cause of death in sudden, suspicious or unnatural cases. It determines the mode, manner and time passed since death. Objective: To explore the knowledge and attitude of 3rd year medical students regarding post mortem examination at the very beginning of their para clinical course study. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was performed at Armed Forces Medical College, Dhaka during the period of July to September 2016. One hundred fifteen 3rd year students were selected by purposive and convenient method and asked to respond anonymously to a 18 item selfadministered, predesigned, pretested multiple choice questionnaire which dealt with their views on autopsy practice, the knowledge procedure, attitude and perception towards post mortem examination. Ethical permission of authority concerned and verbal consent was obtained from every respondent students. Results: In this study, 108(93.91 %) students gave positive answer about the requirement of autopsy in unnatural death cases. A large number of students 57(49.56%) did not know about the types of autopsy, but more than half 67(58.26%) knew about virtual autopsy. Seventy two (62.61%) answered that heart is the organ sent for histopathological examination and majority 71(61.74%) could identify the viscera sent for chemical analysis. But most of them 65(56.52%) had wrong idea about the laboratory for chemical analysis. Also 70(60.87%) thought that formalin is used for preservation of viscera. Majority students 88(76.52%) answered that autopsy is performed to detect the cause of death. Greater part of respondent 98(85.22%) also said postmortem examination is neither harassment to victim’s relatives and nor disrespect to a dead body. Most of the students 113(98.26%) answered that observation of post mortem examination should be part of MBBS course curriculum and all 115(100%) gave positive response about utility of this chapter in their course studies. Forty one (35.65%) came to know about autopsy from medical books, followed by 35(30.44%) from newspaper/ story books. Almost all 113(98.26%) did not watch any autopsy before their admission to medical college. A greater part of students 74(64.35%) did not know whether autopsy cause any disfigurement of dead bodies. In present study 102(88.69%) students showed positive attitude to have post mortem examination of relatives if required. Majority of samples thought post mortem is not required in putrefied body and 93(80.87%) answered that body can be preserved at mortuary cooler after post mortem when required. Conclusion: Post mortem is an integral part of Forensic Medicine course curriculum. Teaching professionals should give more emphasis to make this chapter more interesting to the medical students. Journal of Armed Forces Medical College Bangladesh Vol.12(2) 2016: 9-14
Research
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This represents one of several sections of "A Bibliography Related to Crime Scene Interpretation with Emphases in Geotaphonomic and Forensic Archaeological Field Techniques, Nineteenth Edition" (The complete bibliography is also included at ResearchGate.net.). This is the most recent edition of a bibliography containing resources for multiple areas of crime scene, and particularly outdoor crime scene, investigations. It replaces the prior edition and contains approximately 10,000 additional citations. As an ongoing project, additional references, as encountered, will be added to future editions. This bibliography would not be complete without the inclusion of references to the general topics of crime scene and criminal investigation. Just as the compiler emphasizes the need for law enforcement to understand the training and practices of specialists he might call to a crime scene, it is important for the non-law enforcement practitioner, or civilian expert, to understand the training to which an investigator is exposed. The non-forensic expert consulted by law enforcement must remember that crime scene processing includes procedures for avoiding cross-contamination and insuring proper chain of custody. A premise of Melissa Connor's Forensic Methods, (2007), is this introduction of criminal investigators and non-law enforcement to each other's viewpoints. The formally trained archaeologist and criminalist will find in common, goals of systematically documenting, collecting, and interpreting physical evidence for the purpose of understanding factors which affected the depositional history of that evidence, and ultimately elucidating human behavior in a very precise way. For both disciplines the comprehensive documentation of the physical evidence in its contextual setting is paramount. the greatest handicap for the academic forensic specialist is coping with the paradox of being pressured to process crime scenes as efficiently as possible. Research projects involving relatively trivial subject matter are often afforded more time than scenes which literally involve circumstances of life and death. The researcher may find the sections on Excavation and Recovery Strategies; Planning, Reconnaissance and Mapping Techniques; and Mass Fatality and Human Rights Investigations cross referenced here or compatible with citations found below. (2935 citations)
Research
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This represents one of several sections of "A Bibliography Related to Crime Scene Interpretation with Emphases in Geotaphonomic and Forensic Archaeological Field Techniques, Nineteenth Edition" (The complete bibliography is also included at ResearchGate.net.). This is the most recent edition of a bibliography containing resources for multiple areas of crime scene, and particularly outdoor crime scene, investigations. It replaces the prior edition and contains approximately 10,000 additional citations. As an ongoing project, additional references, as encountered, will be added to future editions. Perhaps no aspect of crime scene documentation is more important and more demonstrable than photography. The mere press of a button can lock in time a theoretically unbiased account of a scene or subject. How often have we experienced, or heard of, cases successfully resolved and adjudicated with the inclusion of accurate and complete photographs? Most investigators have also experienced the opposite situation in which too few, or poor, quality photographs are taken of a scene. For the analyst, jurist and jury person who have not had the opportunity to be at the crime scene as it was found by the investigator, photographs or videos may be the only remaining means of observing the condition of remains and environmental factors which may have affected their state. Most forensic anthropologists can relate personal horror stories of remains brought or shipped to their laboratories with little or no contextual record. Photographs of the original position of remains in their discovered context at the scene can be invaluable in such situations. An often used adage in police investigations is “film is cheap,” meaning that one can never take too many pictures of the crime scene, its contents, and its environs. Digital photographic technology advances each year with the increased ability to take more and better detailed pictures using adequate equipment affordable to most law enforcement. Smartphones now have cameras with more pixel capacity than some sole-functioning cameras. It is inexcusable for investigators to leave a crime scene without a good photographic record. Having said that, investigators must also realize that photography is but one part of a documentation trilogy. Accurate crime scene reconstruction is best served by incorporating good photography with good diagramming or mapping, and good note taking. The three not only act as checks on the others, but also fill each other's shortcomings. For example, photographs represent a perspective and can be affected by things such as parallax. Diagrams are limited by their schematic nature; notes by their lack of visual depictions. In concert, this trilogy of documentation techniques most completely preserves and describes a scene that is temporary in time and space. This bibliography devotes an entire category to photography and photogrammetry - The art or process of surveying or mapping via photographs, and usually aerial photographs. Several references to photogrammetric mapping may also be found in “Planning, Reconnaissance, Surveys, and Mapping Techniques”. This section of the bibliography may also include occasional references to remote sensing and satellite imagery as they utilize photogrammetry. Those citations may be cross-referenced to the section on Geophysical/Remote Sensing Technology and Applications. For more sources related to remote sensing, the reader is directed to that section.
Research
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This represents one of several sections of "A Bibliography Related to Crime Scene Interpretation with Emphases in Geotaphonomic and Forensic Archaeological Field Techniques, Nineteenth Edition" (The complete bibliography is also included at ResearchGate.net.). This is the most recent edition of a bibliography containing resources for multiple areas of crime scene, and particularly outdoor crime scene, investigations. It replaces the prior edition and contains approximately 10,000 additional citations. As an ongoing project, additional references, as encountered, will be added to future editions. After it is secured, the first step toward processing a crime scene is assessing and recording its position in situ as well as its relationship to other sites affected by subject(s) and victim(s). This follows tenets shared by archaeology, geotaphonomy, and general criminalistics: Crime scenes do not occur in vacuums. They entail points of access, egress, and are influenced by immediate and neighboring environmental activities. Consider cases in which lone skulls are found by pedestrians. More often than not, those skulls were once attached to remains which lie nearby. By recording the environment or context from which the skull was recovered, (beyond its mere two dimensional position within a small grid), its peri- and postmortem history may become more clear. The routine recording of elevations and topographic features such as streams, flood plains, slopes, et cetera, near remains could provide the investigator, laboratory analyst, and ultimately a jury, with information related to taphonomic processes affecting those remains and explanations for their ultimate dispositions. Too often investigators take a myopic view toward crime scenes and concentrate only on the area around the primary piece of evidence. The experienced, well-trained, and practiced crime scene investigator or archaeologist realizes three integrated and expanding spheres of any investigation: the evidence or artifact, the incident, and the event. Toward expanding perspective into the incident and event spheres of investigation, this category contains resources which generally entail topics of search or survey techniques as well as mapping methodologies and equipment. Several of the articles also apply to logistics and preparation; however, the reader is also directed to the categories of “General Crime Scene and Death Scene Investigation” and "Excavation and Recovery Strategies" for additional references which contain discussions about logistics and planning. The most important component of planning for a forensic search or recovery is consideration of personal and team safety. Many sites suitable for the disposal of homicide victims pose significant risks to living individuals. Sites such as landfills and cesspools demonstrate one type of obvious hazard, while confined spaces such as wells, cisterns, or mine shafts represent another with less visible dangers such as carbon monoxide or structural collapse. Attention to safety extends beyond the field to laboratory and storage settings. Inadequate facilities, personal protection, or inappropriate handling of hazardous evidence or chemicals used to process evidence can put technicians and scientists at significant risk. For these reasons, this section of the bibliography begins with the topic of safety.
Conference Paper
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Animation is a potentially powerful instrument to convey complex information with movements, smooth transitions between different states that employ the strong human capabilities to perceive and interpret motion. Animation is a natural choice to display time-dependent data where the dynamic nature of the data is mapped to a kind of video (temporal animation). Clipping planes may be smoothly translated and object transparency adapted to control visibility and further support emphasis of spatial relations, e.g. around a tumor. Animation, however, may also be employed for static data, e.g. to move a camera along a predefined path to convey complex anatomical structures. Virtual endoscopy, where the virtual camera is moved inside an air-filled or fluid-filled structure is a prominent example for these non-temporal animations. Animations, however, are complex visualizations that may depict a larger number of changes in a short period of time. Thus, they need to be assessed in their capability to actually convey information. In this paper, we give a survey of temporal and non-temporal animated visualizations focussed on medical applications and discuss the research potential that arises. To be employed more widely, cognitive limitations, e.g. change blindness, need to be considered. The reduction of complexity in temporal animations is an essential topic to enable the detection and interpretation of changes. Emphasis techniques may guide the user's attention and improve the perception of essential features. Finally, interaction beyond the typical video recorder functionality is considered. Although our focus is medicine, the discussion of a research agenda is partially based on cartography, where animation is widely used.
Article
With 6 years of experience in implementing virtopsy routinely into the Hong Kong cetacean stranding response program, standardized virtopsy procedures, postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) acquisition, postprocessing, and evaluation were successfully established. In this pioneer cetacean virtopsy stranding response program, PMCT was performed on 193 stranded cetaceans, providing postmortem findings to aid necropsy and shed light on the biological health and profile of the animals. This study aimed to assess 8 image rendering techniques in PMCT, including multiplanar reconstruction, curved planar reformation, maximum intensity projection, minimum intensity projection, direct volume rendering, segmentation, transfer function, and perspective volume rendering. Illustrated with practical examples, these techniques were able to identify most of the PM findings in stranded cetaceans and served as a tool to investigate their biological health and profile. This study could guide radiologists, clinicians and veterinarians through the often difficult and complicated realm of PMCT image rendering and reviewing.
Article
Various imaging modalities, including conventional radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance, and surface scanning have been applied in the examination of skeletal injuries in the forensic context. Although still not a substitute for a full medico-legal autopsy or the examination of skeletal remains, imaging is now increasingly used as a complementary tool in the postmortem analysis of perimortem skeletal trauma. Facilitated by the progress in general computational capacity, multimodal imaging has been proposed for comprehensive forensic documentation. A major advantage of these imaging approaches is that stored digital or physical 3D models of skeletal injuries can be reviewed at any time by various experts as well as be presented in court as evidence to clarify potentially complex medical and forensic aspects of the case. Due to constant technical progress in imaging techniques and software, continuous education, training, and sharing of expertise among engineers, computer scientists, and forensic experts, including forensic pathologists, anthropologists, and radiologists needs to be warranted to maintain high-quality expertise in the detection and interpretation of traumatic injuries on postmortem imaging. The technical developments and ever-improving user-friendliness of 3D imaging and modeling techniques present an atttactive alternative to traditional forensic approaches, but as long as the techniques have not been sufficiently tested and validated for forensic trauma analysis, and best practice manuals for forensic practice are lacking for both the technical procedures and method selection, the use of imaging techniques needs to be reevaluated on a case-by-case basis. In addition, ethical, legal, and financial aspects of the use of imaging and 3D modeling for forensic purposes need to be well understood by all parties in legal proceedings.
Article
Adventure and extreme sports (AESs) are associated with high risk of injury and even death. This has important ramifications for sport, education, medical and health professions and has led to discussions about the appropriateness of AESs for young people. For some, participation in AESs reflects social deviance. Research from this perspective has focused on testing this notion. However, in recent years research has questioned the perceived link to risk arguing that many acceptable activities might be ‘riskier’. Research from this perspective focuses on the positive side of AESs. Evidence points to a growing interest in AESs by young people and that AES activities might be useful to enhance the uptake of and adherence to physical activity, and support mental wellbeing in young people. This perspective suggests (1) AESs are important for the overall development of young people, (2) policy makers across sectors should recognize AESs when considering future interventions.
Chapter
The ways in which biological data specific to the human skeleton are acquired have, and continue, to evolve in response to ethical concerns and fundamental technological developments. The traditional reliance on the study of physical skeletal remains that is deeply rooted in the history of physical and forensic anthropology is increasingly being supplemented by data acquired from virtual modalities, including (but not limited to) digital X-rays and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). This chapter provides a succinct introduction to the physical and virtual sources of biological data utilized in forensic anthropological research by considering the current use of extant repositories of human skeletal remains. The specific modality employed, whether physical and/or virtual, is associated with inherent complexities and limitations that determine whether the derived data are judicially admissible and/or optimized for implementation into routine forensic practice; these are also accordingly described and discussed.
Chapter
In the field of forensic science, autopsy that is postmortem examination involves a thorough corpse examination done in order to determine the cause and manner of the death by invasive method. With the advancement of technology a new term: “Virtopsy” meaning virtual autopsy employs the application of imaging techniques namely computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proven its advantages in the forensic field. It involves the scanning of dead bodies in a non-invasive manner. It a great alternative to the traditional autopsy as it provides wide-range and systemic examination of the whole body in a less time duration, benefits in diagnosis as well as renders respect to religious sentiments. Method is more specific, sensitive, & precise and accurately reflect soft tissue injuries, organ damage, wound extent, fractures which provides instinctive and powerful court evidence for forensic identification. The chapter will be describing the importance of “Virtopsy” in the field of forensic science and its future scope in forensic crime investigations.
Article
Documentation and evidence analysis are major components in forensic investigation; hence two-dimensional (2D) photographs along with three-dimensional (3D) models and data are used to accomplish this task. Data generated through 3D scanning and photogrammetry are generally visualised on a computer screen. However, spatial details are lost on the visualisation of 3D data on 2D computer screens. Virtual reality (VR) is an immersive technology that allows a user to visualise 3D information by immersing oneself into the scene. In forensics, VR was particularly introduced for the visualising and plotting distances of crime scenes; however, this technology has wider applications in the field of forensics and for court presentation. This short communication outlines the concept of VR and its potential in the field of forensics.
Chapter
Extreme aerial sports are a large subgroup of extreme sports. Participation in these activities has grown exponentially in the last decades, often surpassing traditional sports. Although fatalities related to extreme aerial sports are often generically ascribed to polytrauma, an autopsy can reveal unexpected elements in many cases. Forensic studies may lead us to ascertain different causes of death, such as anaphylaxis or myocardial infarction and together with eyewitness reports, they may make it possible to clarify the chain of events that led to an accident. This review paper may be critical not only for medico-legal reasons but also to provide useful information for the development of preventive measures, specific recommendations and safety systems. The paper aims to review available data about fatality rates, causes and dynamics in extreme aerial sports and to draw some possible conclusions about the role of forensic examinations in these sports.
Article
Forensic medicine aims for the documentation of medical and other forensic findings in living and deceased persons, for the police and the judiciary system. An Autopsy is a highly surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse to determine the cause and manner of death to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present. Though in other branches of the specialty, newer techniques are part of daily routine, in autopsy, the same century old techniques are still being used. Virtopsy is one step ahead in this field which literally means virtual autopsy. New methods like 3D-surface scanning and modern radiological procedures like computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are becoming more and more part of scientific research in forensic sciences and are today part of the routine work flow in a some institutes of legal medicine. This paper is aimed to discuss a few points in the field of Virtopsy.
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Article
We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of morphometric measurements performed on cranial computerized tomography (CT) images for the estimation of sex. A retrospective study was performed in the radiology department of a tertiary care center using data collected from cranial CT scans of 616 Caucasian cases (307 women, 309 men) with an average age of 44.70 ± 16.43. The parameters under investigation consisted of maximum cranial length (MCL), minimum frontal breadth, bi-zygomatic breadth (BZB), parietal chord, maximum cranial breadth, bi-mastoid diameter (BIM) and the length of cranial base. Any statistically significant difference in terms of these parameters was found between males and females. In our series, women were remarkably older than men (47.56 ± 15.87 vs. 41.39 ± 16.43; p < 0.001). We observed that there was a statistically significant difference between males and females concerning all morphometric measurements and males displayed higher values in terms of all parameters (p < 0.001, for all). The variables with the most successful performance for discrimination of gender were BZB (89.2%), MCL (87.4%) and BIM (84.8%). The concomitant use of these morphometric measurements seems to improve the accuracy of sex estimation. We suggest that morphometric measurements performed on cranial CT images can be useful for the estimation of sex.
Article
Morphometric analysis of the clavicle is a potential source of useful data for the estimation of sex. Clavicle is often retrieved intact from decomposed and scavenged remains when pelvis and skull, essential sex indicators, are often found damaged or missing. The objective of this study is to analyse clavicle morphometric data for sex estimation in a Turkish population. Computed tomography (CT) scans of the thorax of two hundred Turkish adult patients (71 male and 81 female patients with an age range of 22–80 years) were included. Furthermore, morphometric data for the left clavicle using two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) clavicle CT images were obtained, and six variables were measured in the clavicle images. Univariate and multivariate discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used to create population-specific functions for sex estimation. The classification accuracy for the cross-validated data ranged from 75% to 89% in the uni- and multivariate DFA. Stepwise discrimination analysis yielded an 89% accuracy rate for the maximum length and midshaft circumference variables. The study showed that the clavicle can provide useful data for estimating sex in a modern Turkish population and that when there is difficulty accessing bone collections, CT scans can provide useful data for sex estimation.
Article
High‐quality digital three‐dimensional (3D) reconstructions of microscopic findings have been used in anatomical and histopathologic research, but their use in forensic pathology may also be of interest. This paper presents an application of these methods to better characterize the pathway of a stab wound of the anterior surface of the heart in a case of suicide. A portion of the heart wall including the stab wound was serially sectioned for microscopic analysis along the full extent of the wound. Histologic sections were digitally acquired, and a 3D reconstruction was created with ImageJ software for 3D computer graphics. This showed a full‐thickness wound path extending to the endocardial surface of the left ventricle, curvilinear in appearance. After correction for shrinkage, 3D reconstruction allowed estimation of the dimensions of the myocardial injury and comparison of the appearance of the wound with the suspected knife used. The curvilinear appearance was considered to reflect injury during myocardial contraction. Complete microscopic sectioning and 3D reconstruction may allow virtual sectioning through various orientations and also provide useful forensic information for selected injuries.
Article
Management of systemic fungal infection has always been a challenging task for medical practitioners. There has been an exponential increase in the number of fungal infections during the COVID-19 pandemic. In India, cases of invasive mucormycosis are being encountered in large numbers. Injudicious use of steroids has been considered as one of the reasons for the rise in mucormycosis cases. Mucormycosis is a difficult diagnosis in its early stages. Most of the times the patients present in advanced disease conditions. There has been considerable mortality in such cases. Forensic pathologists may encounter such cases in their autopsy practice, particularly during COVID-19 pandemic. This article discusses the etiopathogenesis, autopsy features and post mortem diagnostic approach in cases of mucormycosis.
Article
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Despite a decade of use in US courtrooms, it is only recently that forensic computer animations have become an increasingly important form of communication in legal spheres within the United Kingdom. Aims Research at the University of Nottingham has been influential in the critical investigation of forensic computer graphics reconstruction methodologies and techniques and in raising the profile of this novel form of data visualization within the United Kingdom. The case study presented demonstrates research undertaken by Aims Research and the Department of Forensic Pathology at the University of Sheffield, which aims to apply, evaluate, and develop novel 3-dimensional computer graphics (CG) visualization and virtual reality (VR) techniques in the presentation and investigation of forensic information concerning the human body. The inclusion of such visualizations within other CG or VR environments may ultimately provide the potential for alternative exploratory directions, processes, and results within forensic pathology investigations.
Article
Abstract Photogrammetry can be used to investigate injuries to skin, soft tissue and bones. Among other uses, injuries from blows can be compared with the object that may have caused them. This new application of photogrammetry necessitates a new approach when photographing the findings. The authors have therefore developed and tested aids to assist the photographer and have drafted a protocol for their use. The photographs must be taken with a special camera, but by keeping to the instructions described here a normal camera can be used. The findings must be recorded in three dimensions which means that serial photographs must be prepared. The serial photographs are evaluated using a RolleiMetric system. This calculates a three dimensional data model of the injury by reading spot measurements from the individual photographs in the series. The instrument thought to have caused the injury will be photographed in the same way. Using the CAD-process, the injury and the surface thought to have been responsible for the injury will be examined to see if there are matching features. The photographs can be taken by an experienced photographer under the direction of a forensic pathologist. The evaluation using the RolleiMetric system should be left to a specialist.
Article
By means of the new method of Streifenlichttopometrie (SLT) it is possible to record the complete body surface of casualties in a practically photorealistic fashion, i.e. three-dimensionally and in colour. In comparison with the classic method of Photogrammetry Streifenlichttopometrie (SLT) is remarkably faster (10,000 points/s instead of 1 point/s) and in addition the colour of every point measured upon the corpse’s surface is instantly recorded. Taking into consideration the resolution required and the qualities of the camera system the body surface is recorded in ‘patches’, i.e., areas of a defined extension (in the present case 500 mm×500 mm×200 mm) which are marked with a body fixed reference frame to grant the exact matching of the data after the recording process. Length, perimeter, square and volume of the body segments and injuries can be determined. Furthermore the natural colour of the wounds can be used for an immediate classification according to the intensity of the impact forces. In addition the 3-D coordinates of the body surface including the wounds can be transferred into an animated computer simulation for the reconstruction of the traumatic events.
Article
Three-dimensional visualization is an important tool in the evaluation and demonstration of injury. Creating convincing graphics, however, requires strict distinction between illustrative and reconstructive visualizations and a method of validation. We present a case in which we used a radiation-planning tool to provide a 3-dimensional illustrative visualization of a contact gunshot wound to the head, and validated the result by comparing computed radiographs with radiographs taken at autopsy. We discuss the use of visualization tools for data exploration in forensic pathology.
Article
We used image processing to elucidate patterned injuries in a case of assault with a police baton. Three-dimensional visualization techniques were then used to correlate the location of patterned injuries with subjacent fracture and soft tissue damage. The visualization methods are discussed.
Article
By means of the new method of Streifenlichttopometrie (SLT) it is possible to record the complete body surface of casualties in a practically photorealistic fashion, i.e. three-dimensionally and in colour. In comparison with the classic method of Photogrammetry Streifenlichttopometrie (SLT) is remarkably faster (10,000 points/s instead of 1 point/s) and in addition the colour of every point measured upon the corpse's surface is instantly recorded. Taking into consideration the resolution required and the qualities of the camera system the body surface is recorded in 'patches', i.e., areas of a defined extension (in the present case 500 mmx500 mmx200 mm) which are marked with a body fixed reference frame to grant the exact matching of the data after the recording process. Length, perimeter, square and volume of the body segments and injuries can be determined. Furthermore the natural colour of the wounds can be used for an immediate classification according to the intensity of the impact forces. In addition the 3-D coordinates of the body surface including the wounds can be transferred into an animated computer simulation for the reconstruction of the traumatic events.
Article
In the field of the documentation of forensics-relevant injuries, from the reconstructive point of view, the forensic, CAD-supported photogrammetry plays an important role; particularly so when a detailed 3-D reconstruction is vital. This is demonstrated with a soft-tissue injury to the face caused by being run over by a car tire. Since the objects (injury and surface of the tire) to be investigated will be evaluated in virtual space, they must be series photographed. These photo sequences are then evaluated with the RolleiMetric multi-image evaluation system. This system measures and calculates the spatial location of points shown in the photo sequences, and creates 3-D data models of the objects. In a 3-D CAD program, the model of the injury is then compared against the model of the possible injury-causing instrument. The validation of the forensic, CAD-supported photogrammetry, as shown by the perfect 3-D match between the tire tread and the facial injury, demonstrates how greatly this 3-D method surpasses the classic 2-D overlay method (one-to-one photography).
Article
Using postmortem multislice computed tomography (MSCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 40 forensic cases were examined and findings were verified by subsequent autopsy. Results were classified as follows: (I) cause of death, (II) relevant traumatological and pathological findings, (III) vital reactions, (IV) reconstruction of injuries, (V) visualization. In these 40 forensic cases, 47 partly combined causes of death were diagnosed at autopsy, 26 (55%) causes of death were found independently using only radiological image data. Radiology was superior to autopsy in revealing certain cases of cranial, skeletal, or tissue trauma. Some forensic vital reactions were diagnosed equally well or better using MSCT/MRI. Radiological imaging techniques are particularly beneficial for reconstruction and visualization of forensic cases, including the opportunity to use the data for expert witness reports, teaching, quality control, and telemedical consultation. These preliminary results, based on the concept of "virtopsy," are promising enough to introduce and evaluate these radiological techniques in forensic medicine.
Article
Forensic three-dimensional/computer aided design (CAD)-supported photogrammetry (FPHG) plays an important role in the field of the documentation of forensic relevant injuries; particularly so when a detailed, 3D reconstruction is necessary. This is demonstrated in the case of a patterned blunt injury to the face of a victim, which injury was subsequently proven by FPHG to have been caused by a blow from the muzzle of a soft air gun. The objects to be evaluated had to be series photographed in order to be evaluated virtually on the computer. These photo series were then analyzed with the RolleiMetric system. This system measures and calculates the spatial location of distinctive points on the objects' surfaces, and creates 3D data models of the objects. In a 3D/CAD program, the "virtual 3D model of the injury" is then compared against the "virtual 3D model of the possible injury-causing instrument". The validation of FPHG, as shown by the 3D match between certain characteristics of the muzzle form and the facial injury, demonstrates how this 3D method can be used for patterned wound documentation and analysis.
Article
Forensic 3D/CAD supported photogrammetry (FPHG) is a method of recording and documenting the surface of small objects, thus enabling a three-dimensional image of these objects in virtual space. With this representation on the computer screen the course of forensically relevant events can be reconstructed. The procedure allows for examining patterned injuries of skin, soft tissue or bones for matching potentially incriminated instruments in shape, size and angle.3D recording of objects to be examined requires taking series of photographs. A computer system then calculates the position in space of certain points on the surface of the objects and subsequently produces 3D data models of the objects. Using a 3D/CAD program these data models are used to generate graphic true-to-object volume models. The objects in question can then be moved against each other arbitrarily on the screen-depending on the questions to be answered-in order to compare them and possibly establish their congruence. This article covers the state of the art in FPHG procedures in the form of a step-by-step instruction. It also illustrates the wide range of FPHG applications.
Article
Bite mark identification is based on the individuality of a dentition, which is used to match a bite mark to a suspected perpetrator. This matching is based on a tooth-by-tooth and arch-to-arch comparison utilising parameters of size, shape and alignment. The most common method used to analyse bite mark are carried out in 2D space. That means that the 3D information is preserved only two dimensionally with distortions. This paper presents a new 3D documentation, analysis and visualisation approach based on forensic 3D/CAD supported photogrammetry (FPHG) and the use of a 3D surface scanner. Our photogrammetric approach and the used visualisation method is, to the best to our knowledge, the first 3D approach for bite mark analysis in an actual case. The documentation has no distortion artifacts as can be found with standard photography. All the data are documented with a metric 3D measurement, orientation and subsequent analysis in 3D space. Beside the metrical analysis between bite mark and cast, it is possible using our method to utilise the topographical 3D feature of each individual tooth. This means that the 3D features of the biting surfaces and edges of each teeth are respected which is--as shown in our case--very important especially in the front teeth which have the first contact to the skin. Based upon the 3D detailed representation of the cast with the 3D topographic characteristics of the teeth, the interaction with the 3D documented skin can be visualised and analysed on the computer screen.
Article
Photography process reduces a three-dimensional (3D) wound to a two-dimensional level. If there is a need for a high-resolution 3D dataset of an object, it needs to be three-dimensionally scanned. No-contact optical 3D digitizing surface scanners can be used as a powerful tool for wound and injury-causing instrument analysis in trauma cases. The 3D skin wound and a bone injury documentation using the optical scanner Advanced TOpometric Sensor (ATOS II, GOM International, Switzerland) will be demonstrated using two illustrative cases. Using this 3D optical digitizing method the wounds (the virtual 3D computer model of the skin and the bone injuries) and the virtual 3D model of the injury-causing tool are graphically documented in 3D in real-life size and shape and can be rotated in the CAD program on the computer screen. In addition, the virtual 3D models of the bone injuries and tool can now be compared in a 3D CAD program against one another in virtual space, to see if there are matching areas. Further steps in forensic medicine will be a full 3D surface documentation of the human body and all the forensic relevant injuries using optical 3D scanners.
Article
A main goal of forensic medicine is to document and to translate medical findings to a language and/or visualization that is readable and understandable for judicial persons and for medical laymen. Therefore, in addition to classical methods, scientific cutting-edge technologies can and should be used. Through the use of the Forensic, 3-D/CAD-supported Photogrammetric method the documentation of so-called "morphologic fingerprints" has been realized. Forensic, 3-D/CAD-supported Photogrammetry creates morphologic data models of the injury and of the suspected injury-causing instrument allowing the evaluation of a match between the injury and the instrument. In addition to the photogrammetric body surface registration, the radiological documentation provided by a volume scan (i.e., spiral, multi-detector CT, or MRI) registers the sub-surface injury, which is not visible to Photogrammetry. The new, combined method of merging Photogrammetry and Radiology data sets creates the potential to perform many kinds of reconstructions and postprocessing of (patterned) injuries in the realm of forensic medical case work. Using this merging method of colored photogrammetric surface and gray-scale radiological internal documentation, a great step towards a new kind of reality-based, high-tech wound documentation and visualization in forensic medicine is made. The combination of the methods of 3D/CAD Photogrammetry and Radiology has the advantage of being observer-independent, non-subjective, non-invasive, digitally storable over years or decades and even transferable over the web for second opinion.
Article
A real pedestrian-car-crash was reconstructed by use of a multi-body simulation. The main aspect was the use of an individual body surface for the human body model and the car. The simulation allowed a plausible reconstruction of the accident. A good correlation of the contact-pairs in the model and the real forensic data was achieved by variation of the hypothetical szenario.
Article
The aim of forensic biomechanics is the reconstruction of traumatic events based on the pathological findings in the victim's morphology, the accident traces and the car damages. The use of forensic documentation tools (e.g. Streifenlichttopometrie) enables 3-dimensional and proportional accurate documentation of the victim's body, of its injuries and of the car damages with submillimeter precision. The generated topographic image serves as input for a multi-body system model of the victim. It allows further to determine exactly the contact points between car and victim for a computer simulated dynamical reconstruction of the impact situation. In the case of an accident involving a car and a pedestrian the generation and application of computer aided 3-dimensional reconstruction models are shown.
Forensic medicine: Clinical and pathological aspects
  • M Thali
  • P Vock
Thali M, Vock P. Role of and techniques in forensic imaging. In: Payen-James J, Busuttil A, Smock W, editors. Forensic medicine: Clinical and pathological aspects. London: Greenwich Medical Media, 2003: 731-45.