Initial clinical experience with frameless radiosurgery for patients with intracranial metastases
To review the initial clinical experience with frameless stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for treating intracranial metastatic disease.
Sixty-four patients received frameless SRS for intracranial metastatic disease. Minimum follow-up was 6 months with none lost to follow-up. Patients had a median of 2 metastases and a maximum of 4. The median number of isocenters was 2 with median arcs of 10 and median dose of 17.5 Gy. Thirteen patients were treated for progressive/recurrent disease after surgical resection or whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT). Fifty-one patients were treated with frameless SRS as an an adjunct to initial treatment. Of the total treated, 17 were treated with SRS alone, 20 were treated with WBRT plus SRS, 16 were treated with surgical resection plus SRS, and the remaining 11 were treated with surgical resection plus WBRT plus SRS.
With a median actuarial follow-up period of 8.2 months, ultimate local control was 88%. The median time to progression was 8.1 months. The median overall survival was 8.7 months. Of the 17 patients treated with SRS alone, 86% had ultimate local control with mean overall survival of 7.1 months. Of the 13 patients who received surgical resection plus SRS without WBRT as primary treatment, there was 85% ultimate local control with an overall survival of 10.3 months. Three patients treated with initial surgery alone had recurrence treated with SRS 2-3 months after resection. All these patients obtained local control and median survival was >10 months. Of the 13 patients who received WBRT followed by SRS as boost treatment, 92% had local control and mean overall survival was 7.3 months. Of 7 patients who received SRS after recurrence after WBRT, 100% had local control with median survival of 8.2 months. For 8 patients who received surgery followed by WBRT and SRS, local control was 50%; however, ultimate intracranial control was achieved in 7 of 8 patients with repeat SRS and surgical resection. The overall survival in this group of patients was 14.7 months. No patient had a serious (Grade 3 or higher) complication requiring intervention.
Frameless optically guided radiosurgery is less invasive, can be performed as a standard radiotherapy-based simulation procedure, and maintains submillimetric accuracy. Our initial results with frameless SRS for metastatic disease suggest survival times and local control (88%) eqiuvalent to frame-based methodologies. Practical noninvasive delivery makes treatment and potential retreatment to avoid WBRT more feasible.
Available from: Jean-Francois Daisne
- "La mise en place et le contrôle sont effectués grâce à des radiographies osseuses en conditions stéréotaxiques fusionnées avec les images digitales reconstruites. La fiabilité et le confort pour le patient ont été démontrés  . 2.1. "
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ABSTRACT: Stereotactic radiosurgery is now well implanted in the radiotherapy treatment tools of brain metastasis. The dose can be delivered in one or multiple sessions. Results seem equivalent. CT scan and MRI imaging are required to delineate and calculate dosimetry. Doses are variable according to the size of the metastases, localization, pathology or equipment. Stabilization or reduction of tumour size is the rules after stereotactic treatment. Impact in terms of overall survival is more difficult to apprehend because of the general context of the disease. Many questions remain unresolved, such as the usefulness of whole brain irradiation, adaptation of the treatment schedule to tumour pathophysiology, role of stereotactic treatment after surgery of metastases, etc.
Available from: Mattia Falchetto Osti
- "Because the ultimate validity of a procedure is measured in terms of clinical results, we have examined the local control as the most sensitive clinical outcome for assessing target accuracy for brain metastases treated with frameless SRS. The tumor control of 91% at 12 months and 82% at 24 months is in the best range reported using other frameless stereotactic systems [30-32], and confirms that frameless SRS is a viable option for patients with brain metastases with an outcome similar to that observed following frame-based SRS [33-37]. Certainly, frameless SRS has several advantages compared with traditional frame-based techniques including patient comfort, greater flexibility in scheduling treatment planning and treatment procedure, possibility to treat multiple lesions in different days without the need to reapply a head frame, and the ability to use "multisession radiosurgery" to treat large lesions. "
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ABSTRACT: To assess the accuracy of patient repositioning and clinical outcomes of frameless stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases using a stereotactic mask fixation system.
One hundred two patients treated consecutively with frameless SRS as primary treatment at University of Rome Sapienza Sant'Andrea Hospital between October 2008 and April 2010 and followed prospectively were involved in the study. A commercial stereotactic mask fixation system (BrainLab) was used for patient immobilization. A computerized tomography (CT) scan obtained immediately before SRS was used to evaluate the accuracy of patient repositioning in the mask by comparing the isocenter position to the isocenter position established in the planning CT. Deviations of isocenter coordinates in each direction and 3D displacement were calculated. Overall survival, brain control, and local control were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method calculated from the time of SRS.
The mean measured isocenter displacements were 0.12 mm (SD 0.35 mm) in the lateral direction, 0.2 mm (SD 0.4 mm) in the anteroposterior, and 0.4 mm (SD 0.6 mm) in craniocaudal direction. The maximum displacement of 2.1 mm was seen in craniocaudal direction. The mean 3D displacement was 0.5 mm (SD 0.7 mm), being maximum 2.9 mm. The median survival was 15.5 months, and 1-year and 2-year survival rates were 58% and 24%, respectively. Nine patients recurred locally after SRS, with 1-year and 2-year local control rates of 91% and 82%, respectively. Stable extracranial disease (P = 0.001) and KPS > 70 (P = 0.01) were independent predictors of survival.
Frameless SRS is an effective treatment in the management of patients with brain metastases. The presented non-invasive mask-based fixation stereotactic system is associated with a high degree of patient repositioning accuracy; however, a careful evaluation is essential since occasional errors up to 3 mm may occur.
Available from: Joshua D Lawson
- "The largest series to date includes 64 patients, most of whom also received surgical resection, whole brain radiation treatment, or both. In this series, overall local control was similar to that reported for frame-based radiosurgery at 88% [14, 22–24]. Treatment plans on this frameless series employed 1–7 isocenters and 5–35 treatment arcs. "
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ABSTRACT: We have employed a frameless localization system for intracranial radiosurgery, utilizing a custom biteblock with fiducial markers and an infra-red camera for set-up and monitoring patient position. For multiple brain metastases or large irregular lesions, we use a single-isocenter intensity-modulated approach. We report our quality assurance measurements and our experience using Intensity Modulated Radiosurgery (IMRS) to treat such intracranial lesions. A phantom with integrated targets and fiducial markers was utilized to test the positional accuracy of the system. The frameless localization system was used for patient setup and target localization as well as for motion monitoring during treatment. Inverse optimization planning gave satisfactory dose coverage and critical organ sparing. Patient setup was guided by the infrared camera through fine adjustment in three translational and three rotational degrees for isocenter localization and verified by orthogonal kilovoltage (kV) images, taken before treatment to ensure the accuracy of treatment. The relative localization of the camera based system was verified to be highly accurate along three translational directions of couch motion and couch rotation. After verification, we began treating patients with this technique. About 8-12 properly selected fixed beams with a single isocenter were sufficient to achieve good dose coverage and organ sparing. Portal dosimetry with an Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID) and kV images provided excellent quality assurance for the IMRS plan and patient setup. The treatment time was less than 60 min to deliver doses of 16-20 Gy in a single fraction. The camera-based system was verified for positional accuracy and was deemed sufficiently accurate for stereotactic treatments. Single isocenter IMRS treatment of multiple brain metastases or large irregular lesions can be done within an acceptable treatment time and gives the benefits of dose-conformity and organ-sparing, easy plan QA, and patient setup verification.
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