Markers of inflammation and their clinical significance

Section of Atherosclerosis and Lipoprotein Research, Baylor College of Medicine, 6565 Fannin, M.S. A-601, Houston, TX 77030-3498, USA.
Atherosclerosis Supplements (Impact Factor: 2.29). 06/2005; 6(2):21-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosissup.2005.02.005
Source: PubMed


Inflammation plays an important role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis and the development of atherosclerotic events. Understanding the molecular basis of inflammation has led to the identification of markers that may also serve as new targets of therapy in the management of atherothrombotic disease. Inflammatory markers, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), have been shown to predict future cardiovascular events in individuals with and without established cardiovascular disease (CVD). Statins substantially reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and recently their anti-inflammatory properties have been investigated. In this paper, we discuss biomarkers implicated in the inflammatory process leading to atherothrombosis, including CRP, adiponectin, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), CD40 ligand and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)), and the effect of statins on these markers and their potential relationship to cardiovascular events.

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    • "The primary outcome was the decrease of hsCRP (highsensitivity C-reactive protein) levels in each study arm. HsCRP was selected as primary outcome because it is an internationally recognized marker of inflammation and cardiovascular risk [14] [15]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Eating habits may influence the life span and the quality of ageing process by modulating inflammation. The RISTOMED project was developed to provide a personalized and balanced diet, enriched with or without nutraceutical compounds, to decrease and prevent inflammageing, oxidative stress and gut microbiota alteration in healthy elderly people. This paper focused on the effect on inflammation and metabolism markers after 56 days of RISTOMED diet alone or supplementation with three nutraceutical compounds.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland)
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    • "The circulating level of CRP is commonly used as an inflammatory marker to assess the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and stroke [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13]. The significance of elevated CRP as a marker of inflammation in the clinical setting has been suggested in the literature [6] [14] [15]. Published studies suggest a correlation between proinflammatory cytokines related to severity of the atherosclerotic process and CRP levels [13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The use of combined hormonal contraceptives has been reported to increase the level of C-reactive protein (CRP). We assessed the effect of hormonal contraceptive use on inflammatory cytokines including CRP, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, soluble tumor necrosis factor (sTNF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and soluble CD40 ligand. We used 79 female subjects (19 to 30 years old) who were combined oral contraceptives users (), combined vaginal contraceptive users (), and nonusers () with CRP values of ≤1 () or ≥3 (). Information on medical history, physical activities, and dietary and sleeping habits were collected. Both oral and vaginal contraceptive users had higher levels of CRP (), compared to nonusers. Only oral contraceptive users exhibited elevated sCD40L (). When comparing the groups with CRP ≤ 1 and CRP ≥ 3, levels of IL-6 and sTNF-RI were positively correlated with CRP among oral contraceptive users. We did not observe the same elevation for other inflammatory biomarkers for the CRP ≥ 3 group among vaginal contraceptive users. The clear cause of elevation in CRP level due to the use of different hormonal contraceptive formulations and methods is not well understood. Longitudinal studies with larger sample size are required to better assess the true cause of CRP elevation among hormonal contraceptive users.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Mediators of Inflammation
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    • "9 ln (age in years)]. HsCRP values of 1.0 mg/L or more were defined as low-grade inflammation based on the hsCRP threshold definitions established by the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Heart Association (AHA; Pearson et al. 2003; Ballantyne and Nambi 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: It is not yet clear whether intestinal mucosal permeability changes with advancing age in humans. This question is of high importance for drug and nutrition approaches for older adults. Our main objective was to answer the question if small intestinal barrier integrity deteriorates with healthy aging. We conducted a cross-sectional study including the pooled data of 215 nonsmoking healthy adults (93 female/122 male), 84 of whom were aged between 60 and 82 years. After a 12-h fast, all participants ingested 10 g of lactulose and 5 g of mannitol. Urine was collected for 5 h afterwards and analyzed for test sugars. The permeability index (PI = lactulose/mannitol) was used to assess small intestinal permeability. Low-grade inflammation defined by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein ≥1 mL/L and kidney function (estimated glomerular filtration rate) were determined in the older age group. The PI was similar in older compared to younger adults (P = 0.887). However, the urinary recovery of lactulose and mannitol was lower in the older adults and this change was neither associated with urinary volume nor glomerular filtration rate. The PI was not significantly correlated with low-grade inflammation or presence of noninsulin-dependent type 2 diabetes. However, it significantly deteriorated in the copresence of both conditions compared to low-grade inflammation alone (P = 0.043) or type 2 diabetes alone (P = 0.015). Small intestinal mucosal barrier does not deteriorate with age per se. But low-grade inflammation coupled with minor disease challenges, such as type 2 diabetes, can compromise the small intestinal barrier.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014
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