Article

Long-term Nutrient Intake and 5-Year Change in Nuclear Lens Opacities

Department of Nutrition , Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
Archives of Ophthalmology (Impact Factor: 4.4). 04/2005; 123(4):517-26. DOI: 10.1001/archopht.123.4.517
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

To determine if usual nutrient intake is related to a 5-year change in the amount of lens nuclear opacification assessed by computer-assisted image analysis.
A sample of 408 Boston, Mass-area women from the Nurses' Health Study aged 52 to 74 years at baseline participated in a 5-year study related to nutrition and vision. Usual nutrient intake was calculated as the average intake from 5 food frequency questionnaires that were collected over a 13- to 15-year period before the baseline evaluation of lens nuclear density. Duration of vitamin supplement use before baseline was determined from 7 questionnaires collected during this same period. We assessed the degree of nuclear density (opacification) using computer-assisted image analysis of digital lens images with amount of nuclear density measured as a function of average pixel gray scale, ranging from 0 (clear) to 255 (black).
Median (range) baseline and follow-up nuclear densities were 44 (19 to 102) and 63 (32 to 213). The median (range) 5-year change in nuclear density was 18 (-29 to 134) and was positively correlated with the amount of opacification at baseline (Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.35; P<.001). Geometric mean 5-year change in nuclear density was inversely associated with the intake of riboflavin (P trend = .03) and thiamin (P trend = .04) and duration of vitamin E supplement use (P trend = .006).
Our results suggest that long-term use of vitamin E supplements and higher riboflavin and/or thiamin intake may reduce the progression of age-related lens opacification.

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    • "A cross-sectional study of 2,900 Australian men and women, 49 years of age and older, found that those in the highest quintile of thiamin intake were 40% less likely to have nuclear cataracts than those in the lowest quintile (Cumming et al. 2000). In addition, a recent study of 408 US women found that higher dietary intakes of thiamin were inversely associated with 5-year change in lens opacification (Jacques et al. 2005). High dose thiamin therapy also may help reverse microalbuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes (Rabbani et al. 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Thiamin is an essential nutrient in the human diet. Severe thiamin deficiency leads to beriberi, a lethal disease which is common in developing countries. Thiamin biofortification of staple food crops is a possible strategy to alleviate thiamin deficiency-related diseases. In plants, thiamin plays a role in the response to abiotic and biotic stresses, and data from the literature suggest that boosting thiamin content could increase resistance to stresses. Here, we tested an engineering strategy to increase thiamin content in Arabidopsis. Thiamin is composed of a thiazole ring linked to a pyrimidine ring by a methylene bridge. THI1 and THIC are the first committed steps in the synthesis of the thiazole and pyrimidine moieties, respectively. Arabidopsis plants were transformed with a vector containing the THI1 coding sequence under the control of a constitutive promoter. Total thiamin leaf content in THI1 plants was up ~2-fold compared to the wild-type. THI1-overexpressing lines were then crossed with preexisting THIC-overexpressing lines ([Bocobza et al. (2013) Orchestration of Thiamin Biosynthesis and Central Metabolism by Combined Action of the Thiamin Pyrophosphate Riboswitch and the Circadian Clock in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 25:288-307]). Resulting THI1 x THIC plants accumulated up to 3.4- and 2.6-fold more total thiamin than wild-type plants in leaf and seeds, respectively. After inoculation with Pseudomonas syringae, THI1 x THIC plants had lower populations than the wild-type control. However, THI1 x THIC plants subjected to various abiotic stresses did not show any visible or biochemical changes compared to the wild-type. We discuss the impact of engineering thiamin biosynthesis on plants nutritional value and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Plant and Cell Physiology
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    • "A cross-sectional study of 2,900 Australian men and women, 49 years of age and older, found that those in the highest quintile of thiamine intake were 40% less likely to have nuclear cataracts than those in the lowest quintile (Cumming et al. 2000). In addition, a recent study of 408 U.S. women found that higher dietary intakes of thiamine were inversely associated with 5-year change in lens opacification (Jacques et al. 2005). High dose thiamine therapy may also help reverse microalbuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes (Rabbani et al. 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Thiamine pyrophosphate (vitamin B1) is an essential nutrient in the human diet, and is often referred as the energy vitamin. Potato contains modest amounts of thiamine. However, the genetic variation of thiamine concentrations in potato has never been investigated. In this study, we determined thiamine concentrations in freshly-harvested unpeeled tubers of 54 potato clones, the majority of them originating from the Pacific Northwest Potato Development Program. Tubers from 39 clones were collected from four different environmental conditions. Thiamine concentrations ranged from 292 to 1,317 ng g-1 fresh weight, which gives a good estimate of the genetic variation available in Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum. Thirteen clones/varieties contained >685 ng g-1 fresh weight and four had >800 ng g-1 fresh weight over multiple harvests, indicating that these genotypes would contribute a significant amount of thiamine in the diet (>10% of the Recommended Daily Allowance based on a 175- or 150-g serving, respectively). Broad-sense heritability for thiamine content was calculated as 0.49 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.21-0.72, suggesting that genetic variation accounted for about 50% of the observed variation. There were significant clone and clone x environment effects. After accounting for environmental variation, 25 clones were unstable across environments. Tubers harvested at a mature stage late in the growing season had higher amounts of thiamine than tubers harvested at a young stage early in the season. Storage at cold temperature did not lead to significant thiamine loss; instead, thiamine concentrations slightly increased during storage in some genotypes. These results suggest that increasing the concentration of thiamine in potato is feasible and that all potato varieties may one day be a significant source of thiamine in the human diet.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2011 · American Journal of Potato Research
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    • "In another study, Vitamin E supplementation was also found to have no effect on cataract formation (McNeil et al., 2004). In contrast Jacques et al. (2005), Chylack et al. (2002) and Valero et al. (2002), reported that vitamin E supplementation reduced the progression of age-related lens opacification . Vitamin E was also included, along with vitamin C, in the ideal ocular nutritional supplement proposed by Bartlett and Eperjesi (2004a). "
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin and mineral deficiencies are common in developing countries, but also occur in developed countries. We review micronutrient deficiencies for the major vitamins A, cobalamin (B(12)), biotin (vitamin H), vitamins C and E, as well as the minerals iron, and zinc, in the developed world, in terms of their relationship to systemic health and any resulting ocular disease and/or visual dysfunction. A knowledge of these effects is important as individuals with consequent poor ocular health and reduced visual function may present for ophthalmic care.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2008 · Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics
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