Adolf Hitler's medical care.

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For the last nine years of his life Adolf Hitler, a lifelong hypochondriac had as his physician Dr Theodor Morell. Hitler's mood swings, Parkinson's disease, gastro-intestinal symptoms, skin problems and steady decline until his suicide in 1945 are documented by reliable observers and historians, and in Morell's diaries. The bizarre and unorthodox medications given to Hitler, often for undisclosed reasons, include topical cocaine, injected amphetamines, glucose, testosterone, estradiol, and corticosteroids. In addition, he was given a preparation made from a gun cleaner, a compound of strychnine and atropine, an extract of seminal vesicles, and numerous vitamins and 'tonics'. It seems possible that some of Hitler's behaviour, illnesses and suffering can be attributed to his medical care. Whether he blindly accepted such unorthodox medications or demanded them is unclear.

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... By his own account, these symptoms had been present since childhood. [2] The diary kept by his personal physician, Theodor Morell , mentions that the first episode of cramping occurred in 1924. [3] Morell later stated that the complaints had started in 1929. ...
... [4] Morell treated Hitler with various drugs, including probiotics and a preparation containing Belladonna-derived atropine and strychnine. [2] Retrospective explanations given for Hitler's gastrointestinal symptoms include functional bowel disorder, [5] irritable bowel syndrome [2,6,7] and gastritis/peptic ulcer. [8] Within Hitler's medical team, physicians disagreed on the diagnosis. ...
... [4] Morell treated Hitler with various drugs, including probiotics and a preparation containing Belladonna-derived atropine and strychnine. [2] Retrospective explanations given for Hitler's gastrointestinal symptoms include functional bowel disorder, [5] irritable bowel syndrome [2,6,7] and gastritis/peptic ulcer. [8] Within Hitler's medical team, physicians disagreed on the diagnosis. ...
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It has been argued that Adolf Hitler (1889 – 1945) had Parkinson’s disease. He also experienced several gastrointestinal symptoms, for which various explanations have been sought, both contemporaneously and by later authors. In this Historical Note, a possible relationship between Hitler’s Parkinson’s disease and his gastrointestinal symptoms is explored. Specifically, we posit the hypothesis that Hitler may have suffered from small-intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), thus providing an early example of SIBO occurring as a prodromal Parkinson’s disease symptom.
... Already in ancient China, gut bacteria were used to treat watery and dangerous diarrheas; the therapy involved consuming the so called "yellow soup", a preparation containing feces from healthy donors that could be considered as fecal microbiota transplantation (Villa et al. 2016). More recently, Doyle (2005) described that Adolf Hitler, a lifelong hypochondriac, was subjected to bizarre and unorthodox treatments by Dr. Theodor Gilbert Morell, his medical practitioner; in fact, Doyle speculates that some of the behaviors and moods experienced by the dictator could be the result of these unconventional treatments. ...
Many fungal pathogens are dimorphic in nature, existing in “yeast” and “hyphal” “forms”. The “transition” between these “forms” is often stimulated and controlled by environmental factors and significant fungal virulence factors. The literature review shows that fungi’s growth, fungal “morphogenesis”, and invasion of the host by fungi are often associated with fungal virulence. The “morphogenesis” of fungal cells generates various “forms” like “yeast”, “hyphal”, and “pseudohyphal” “forms”. The “yeast” and “hyphal” “forms” of the fungi are having certain advantages in invading host and fungal virulence. The three properties of “morphogenesis” in fungal cells are symmetry breaking, polarity maintenance, and depolarization. The equilibrium involving polarity preservation and depolarization produces variety of cell shapes in fungi. This chapter reviews “morphogenesis” of filamentous fungi, role, and their relevance to entomopathogenicity.
... [42] In the 1930s, doctors had begun using Coramine as a 'wake up' drug to stimulate heart function in people who experienced seizures. [43] In 1952, Australian newspapers reported the drug was 'used frequently in America to stimulate horses'. [44] In January of that year, a Melbourne trainer, Frank Higgott had been disqualified for two years after one of his horses, Hiatus, returned a positive swab for Coramine. ...
Horseracing has been called "one of the first quintessentially modern sports". Its urge towards standardization, its mathematically-set odds, concern with weights, and pioneering embrace of drug-testing reflect an empirical temperament crucial to its transformation from gentleman's pastime to global industry funded by wagering. Ironically, in the late 19th century, it was modern science itself, and in particular the purification and synthesis of the drugs of nature, that turned the doping of racing animals- a practice recorded in antiquity-into an organized criminal enterprise. This paper presents original research into the history of racing chemistry in Australia in the context of developments in the field worldwide. Using a case study approach based on extensive archival materials, it reveals unpublished diaries kept by an analyst working at Sydney Racing Laboratory in the 1950s that document conflicts between scientists over identification of performance drugs in racing animals. The author presents evidence that augments and revises earlier narratives concerning the history of the establishment of laboratory control at Australian racetracks and the removal of the country's first official analyst for racing, Miss Jean Kimble. The Kimble case illustrates the inevitable political, professional and personal pressures that bear upon drug-testing in sports, but also conflicts between scientists over standards and priorities. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Adolf Hitler, who likely suffered from PD, reportedly used amphetamines and cocaine [605][606][607][608][609][610][611][612][613][614][615][616]. In a case-series of two PD patients, cocaine inhalation relieved off periods [617]. ...
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The motor manifestations of Parkinson's disease (PD) are secondary to a dopamine deficiency in the striatum. However, the degenerative process in PD is not limited to the dopaminergic system and also affects serotonergic and noradrenergic neurons. Because they can increase monoamine levels throughout the brain, monoamine reuptake inhibitors (MAUIs) represent potential therapeutic agents in PD. However, they are seldom used in clinical practice other than as antidepressants and wake-promoting agents. This review article summarises all of the available literature on use of 50 MAUIs in PD. The compounds are divided according to their relative potency for each of the monoamine transporters. Despite wide discrepancy in the methodology of the studies reviewed, the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) selective serotonin transporter (SERT), selective noradrenaline transporter (NET), and dual SERT/NET inhibitors are effective against PD depression; (2) selective dopamine transporter (DAT) and dual DAT/NET inhibitors exert an anti-Parkinsonian effect when administered as monotherapy but do not enhance the anti-Parkinsonian actions of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA); (3) dual DAT/SERT inhibitors might enhance the anti-Parkinsonian actions of L-DOPA without worsening dyskinesia; (4) triple DAT/NET/SERT inhibitors might exert an anti-Parkinsonian action as monotherapy and might enhance the anti-Parkinsonian effects of L-DOPA, though at the expense of worsening dyskinesia.
... Methamphetamine is sometimes referred to as "speed" but this term is generally reserved for regular amphetamine and dextroamphetamine [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14]. ...
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ABSTRACT Drug abuse is an important social, medical and legal issue which needs special attention by practioner and policy makers. Recently, an illicit drug called "SHISHEH" has been distributed among drug abusers in Marakazi province with some dreamlike after-use effects. In the present study, it is tried to shed some light on active ingredient of this illicit drug. Our study is an observational descriptive cross sectional study. All cases of illicit drug detection by police under the street name of “SHISHE” referred laboratory of Arak legal medicine center. In sum, 54 samples were sent to the laboratory since 23 Sep 2008 to 20 Mar 2009. Samples were analyzed by TLC (Thin Layer Chromatography) and HPLC (High Performance Gas Chromatography). These methods resulted in detection of relatively high percentage of amphetamine and methamphetamine in all 54 analyzed samples (> 97%). The amount of methamphetamine was also more than Amphetamine in samples but the difference was not statistically important. So, more training and awareness about its effects and dangers for teens and community population are critical.
... Mussolini and Franco as anti-Allied propaganda against Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin, who were avid smokers (Proctor, 1997b;Doyle, 2005). ...
Nazi medicine invokes images of horrific experiments carried out by SS (Schutzstaffel) doctors like Josef Mengele in the concentration camps. Against this background of atrocity visited on some populations, the contributions made by Nazi public health activists and food philosophers were considered one of the most aggressive public health movements in the world. Nazi public health promotion and education were involved in activities that we might today view as socially responsible within the fields of preventive medicine. The dietetic sciences may be regarded as one of the least examined aspects of public health during the period of the Third Reich. This brief commentary explores the forgotten aspects of preventive nutrition under Nazi Germany and its implications within the current public health framework and dietetic practice.
... Stimulation of the mesolimbic reward pathway by methamphetamine causes euphoria and excitement; thus, people are prone to abuse the drug and become addicted to it. [27]. ...
Studies have implicated methamphetamine exposure as a contributor to the development of Parkinson's disease. There is a significant degree of striatal dopamine depletion produced by methamphetamine, which makes the toxin useful in the creation of an animal model of Parkinson's disease. Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with selective degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. The immediate need is to understand the substances that increase the risk for this debilitating disorder as well as these substances'neurodegenerative mechanisms. Currently, various approaches are being taken to develop a novel and cost-effective anti-Parkinson's drug with minimal adverse effects and the added benefit of a neuroprotective effect to facilitate and improve the care of patients with Parkinson's disease. Amethamphetamine-treated animal model for Parkinson's disease can help to further the understanding of the neurodegenerative processes that target the nigrostriatal system. Studies on widely used drugs of abuse, which are also dopaminergic toxicants, may aid in understanding the etiology, pathophysiology and progression of the disease process and increase awareness of the risks involved in such drug abuse. In addition, this review evaluates the possible neuroprotective mechanisms of certain drugs against methamphetamine-induced toxicity.
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Gut microbiota, including bacteria, have been recently recognized to influence, not just human health, but also mood and behavior. The microorganisms can either produce or degrade chemical compounds involved in signaling pathways associated with happiness, depression, suicidal behaviors, or even aggressiveness. The connection between the composition of the gut microbiome and some of these mood disorders appears to be so strong that many researchers are describing a gut microbiome-brain axis, with projections to almost all the organs in the human body. This chapter includes some examples of mood-altering microorganisms, in particularly those promoting either happiness or aggressive behavior.
The promising young 33-year-old doctor, adored by his department at his Suffolk England hospital, had just completed a long night on duty. Three long marathon night shifts in a row had taken their toll on Dr. Ronak Patel, and he was eager to finally enjoy some well-deserved rest. It was just before 9:00 am when the young doctor climbed behind the wheel of his car to make the 40-mile drive home. Fatigued from his all-nighters, Ronak called his wife Helen on his hands-free phone. Although he was but a few miles from home, Ronak and Helen began singing to each other over the phone to keep him from falling asleep at the wheel. With Helen singing in time, Ronak’s voice suddenly stopped. With the phone line having fallen silent, Helen, in her worry, attempted to call him back – trying again and again – no less than 14 times. Fetching her car keys, she began driving the route from their home toward Ronak’s hospital. A mere 3 miles from her home, she was stopped by police who were setting up barricades around the scene of an auto accident. Even while singing to his wife, the young doctor had drifted from his lane, his small Volkswagen Gulf crashing headlong into an oncoming transport truck. The inquest into the young doctor’s death showed no mechanical failure of his car; the findings ultimately ruling that despite actively singing aloud to his wife while navigating the twisting curves of the road, the young doctor had nevertheless succumbed to sleep mere, minutes from his home.
Bis in jüngste Zeit wird immer wieder berichtet, Adolf Hitler sei drogenabhängig oder psychisch gestört gewesen. Ein Arzt und ein Historiker haben dazu alle verfügbaren Informationen ausgewertet.
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This BA (Hons) dissertation uses recently declassified MI5 documents and other official files relating to British intelligence in order to shed new light on the British investigations into the death of Adolf Hitler. It argues that ongoing conspiracy theories relating to Hitler’s survival and the supposedly poor quality and ideologically driven nature of the British investigations are not supported by any credible evidence. Through a series of primary source driven thematic chapters, it analyses the relations between Great Britain, America and the Soviet Union during investigations into Hitler’s death in order to demonstrate that British conclusions regarding Hitler’s suicide were not tainted by Cold War ideological motivations. Through analysis of recently declassified files which contribute new evidence to the historiography, it demonstrates how British intelligence were able to confirm that Hitler had committed suicide on 30 April 1945 and how they thoroughly investigated and disproved survival rumours which have been reported as fact as recently as 2015. The thesis concludes by providing a plausible explanation for the 2009 DNA revelation that the skull once thought to be Hitler’s in Moscow archives was that of a woman by suggesting that this discovery tells us more about the poor quality of the Soviet investigations than Hitler’s suicide.
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Abstract Lankford, Harvey V, Erik R Swenson. Dilated hearts at high altitude: Words from on high. High Alt Med Biol 15:000-000, 2014.-From the time of the turn of the twentieth century, dilated hearts and presumed cardiac fatigue in expeditionary climbers and scientists have been the subject of much commentary in the medical and mountaineering literature. Although largely attributed by most, but not all, to left heart strain, the description of dilated hearts in these accounts is clearly that of right heart dilation as a consequence of high and sustained hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction with hypertensive remodeling. This essay will feature quotations from the writings of high altitude pioneers about dilated, strained, or enlarged hearts. It will give some brief physiology of the right side of the heart as background, but will focus on the words of mountaineers and mountaineering physicians as color commentary.
Introduction: The infamy of Nazi medical research conjures up images of horrific experiments in the concentration camps and SS (Schutzstaffel) doctors like Josef Mengele. However, the anti-smoking campaign of Nazi Germany is perhaps one of the least examined aspects of public health history and state sponsored anti-tobacco advocacy. Nazi public health activism was involved in work that may provide insight relevant to current public health issues. Purpose: This article examined the current literature that discusses the anti-smoking campaigns of Nazi Germany, explored the phenomenon of quality medical research under the banner of National Socialism, and shed light into a forgotten aspect of Nazi medical history. Findings: Previous authors have suggested that the Nazi war on cancer and the contributions made by Nazi public health activists were one of the most aggressive public health movements in the world. Marked with a certain level of ambivalence, these aggressive campaigns against smoking were less concerned with the universal dimensions of public health practices and ethics than they were towards a pursuit of a lifestyle that was worthy of a 'master race.'
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The Czech Republic has a relatively long tradition in the addictive and problem ue of methamphetamine, which is called “pervitin” locally. This paper attempts to gve as complex a picture of this phenomenon as possible by analyzing what is kown about the Czech methamphetamine situation through scientific monitoring and research. It begins with a brief historical overview and then utilizes extensively the system of five key indicators (surveys, treatment demand, problem drug use estimates, blood borne diseases, and mortality) and some of the core indicators (namely, drug related crime, price and purity data, and estimates of market value) of drug epidemiology that were developed by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Addiction. By summarizing and carefully interpreting this data, the specifics of the Czech pervitin scene are described and future directions of possible research are identified.
With the assistance of two new associate editors, Alfred G. Gilman and George B. Koelle, the fifth edition retains the excellence set by previous editions of this classic text. To maintain the same overall length, several outmoded areas have been abbreviated or eliminated. There are discussions of many new drugs, as well as promising drugs whose availability in the United States is probable in the near future.The section on chemotherapy of neoplastic diseases has undergone extensive revision. The introductory section contains a very readable and informative discussion of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and an interesting account of the process of development and approval of new drugs. The section on Parkinson disease has been extensively revised, with major emphasis on levodopa. The chapter on neurohumoral transmission and the autonomic nervous system remains the best source of information in this complex and rapidly changing area. The treatment of diuretics is completely up to
Late in 1945, Trevor-Roper was appointed by British Intelligence in Germany to investigate conflicting evidence surrounding Hitler's final days and to produce a definitive report on his death. The author, who had access to American counterintelligence files and to German prisoners, focuses on the last ten days of Hitler's life, April 20-29, 1945, in the underground bunker in Berlin—a bizarre and gripping episode punctuated by power play and competition among Hitler's potential successors. "From exhaustive research [Trevor-Roper] has put together a carefully documented, irrefutable, and unforgettable reconstruction of the last days in April, 1945."—New Republic "A book sound in its scholarship, brilliant in its presentation, a delight for historians and laymen alike."—A. J. P. Taylor, New Statesman
His wife met Hitler when she was a German swimming champion in 1925 and was a close friend of (1914–47), surgeon Speer's wife, another illustration of the close relationship of many of the Nazi leaders
  • Karl Dr
  • Brandt
Dr Karl Brandt His wife met Hitler when she was a German swimming champion in 1925 and was a close friend of (1914–47), surgeon Speer's wife, another illustration of the close relationship of many of the Nazi leaders.
A German pharmacological handbook for pharmacists and physicians The Rote Liste, or 'Red Book' was published primarily for physicians
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Gehes Codex. A German pharmacological handbook for pharmacists and physicians, with editions in 1937,1938, 1939 and 1949. The Rote Liste, or 'Red Book' was published primarily for physicians.
The secret diaries of Hitler's doctor. London: Grafton
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Irving D. The secret diaries of Hitler's doctor. London: Grafton; 1990.
Wehrmacht officer seconded to Hitler's HQ and witness to all that happened in Hitler's final days
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Gerhard Boldta Junior Wehrmacht officer seconded to Hitler's HQ and witness to all that happened in Hitler's final days. 4
Chief of Luftwaffe. He committed suicide the night before he was to be
  • Hermann Goring
  • A First World War Air Ace
Hermann Goring A First World War Air Ace, Chief of Luftwaffe. He committed suicide the night before he was to be (1893–1946) hanged in Nurenburg.
A meeting with Hitler In: In the shelter with Hitler
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Boldt G. A meeting with Hitler. In: In the shelter with Hitler. London: Citadel Books; 1952.
Hitler's Parkinson-Syndrom. Eine Analyse von-Aufnahmen der Deutschen Wochenschau aus den Jahren
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Gibbels E. Hitler's Parkinson-Syndrom. Eine Analyse von-Aufnahmen der Deutschen Wochenschau aus den Jahren 1940–1945. Wiss.Film, Gesch./Publiz. 8 1995, 1–24