Gender Effects Following Repeated Administration of Cocaine and Alcohol in Humans

Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States
Substance Use & Misuse (Impact Factor: 1.23). 02/2005; 40(4):511-28. DOI: 10.1081/JA-200030693
Source: PubMed


Use of cocaine, alcohol, and the two drugs simultaneously is common and the risk of morbidity and mortality associated with these drugs is widely reported. This double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study examined gender differences in response to administration of these drugs alone and in combination.
Current users of cocaine and alcohol (n = 17) who met diagnostic criteria (DSM-IV) for cocaine dependence and alcohol abuse or dependence (not physiologically dependent on alcohol) and who were not seeking treatment for substance use disorders gave voluntary, written, informed consent to participate in three drug administration sessions:1) four doses of intranasal cocaine (1 mg/kg every 30 min) with oral alcohol (1 g/kg following the initial cocaine dose and a second drink at +60 min (120 mg/kg) calculated to maintain a plasma alcohol concentration of approximately 100 mg/dL; 2)four doses of cocaine and alcohol placebo; 3) cocaine placebo and alcohol. Pharmacokinetics were obtained by serial blood sampling, physiological measurements (heart rate and blood pressure) were obtained with automated equipment, and subjective effects were assessed using visual analog scales over 480 min.
Responses to cocaine, alcohol, and cocaine-alcohol were equivalent by gender for most measurements. Women had higher heart rates following alcohol administration (p = .02). Women consistently reported higher ratings for "Feel Good:' a measure of overall mental/physical well-being, for all study conditions, reaching statistical significance for cocaine (p = .05) and approaching significance for alcohol administration (p = .1).
Women showed equivalent responses to drug administration with the exception of perception of well-being, which was significantly increased for women. These findings may have implications for differential risk for acute and chronic toxicity in women.

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    • "We did not ask our participants to report the route of administration for each episode of use (though we did collect baseline data on each participant's preferred routes of administration). This limits our findings to some degree because sex differences in cocaine effects might themselves differ by route of administration (Collins et al., 2007; McCance-Katz et al., 2005; Mendelson et al., 1999; Sofuoglu et al., 1999 "
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