Ayurveda and Yoga in Cardiovascular Diseases

Department of Community and Preventive Medicine, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York 10595, USA.
Cardiology in Review (Impact Factor: 2.41). 05/2005; 13(3):155-62. DOI: 10.1097/01.crd.0000128730.31658.36
Source: PubMed


Ayurveda is derived from 2 Sanskrit words, namely, "Ayus" and "Veda," meaning life and knowledge, respectively. It literally means science of life. Ayurveda, of which yoga is an integral part, is widely practiced in India and is gaining acceptance in many countries around the world. It is a comprehensive and a holistic system, the focus of which is on the body, mind, and consciousness. The Ayurvedic treatment consists of the use herbal preparations, diet, yoga, meditation, and other practices. Based on the review of available studies, the evidence is not convincing that any Ayurvedic herbal treatment is effective in the treatment of heart disease or hypertension. However, the use of certain spices and herbs such as garlic and turmeric in an overall healthy diet is appropriate. Many herbs used by Ayurvedic practitioners show promise and could be appropriate for larger randomized trials. Yoga, an integral part of Ayurveda, has been shown to be useful to patients with heart disease and hypertension. Yoga reduces anxiety, promotes well-being, and improves quality of life. Its safety profile is excellent. Its use as a complementary therapeutic regimen under medical supervision is appropriate and could be worth considering.

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    • "Firstly, all the included trials were of poor methodology quality, which were in accordance with previous studies [21,22,30]. Five trials included in this paper had risk of bias in terms of design, reporting, and methodology. "
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    ABSTRACT: Yoga is thought to be effective for health conditions. The article aims to assess the current clinical evidence of yoga for Essential hypertension (EH). MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library were searched until June, 2013. We included randomized clinical trials testing yoga against conventional therapy, yoga versus no treatment, yoga combined with conventional therapy versus conventional therapy or conventional therapy combined with breath awareness. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were conducted according to the Cochrane standards. A total of 6 studies (involving 386 patients) were included. The methodological quality of the included trials was evaluated as generally low. A total of 6 RCTs met all the inclusion criteria. 4 of them compared yoga plus conventional therapy with conventional therapy. 1 RCT described yoga combined with conventional therapy versus conventional therapy combined with breath awareness. 2 RCT tested the effect of yoga versus conventional therapy alone. 1 RCT described yoga compared to no treatment. Only one trial reported adverse events without details, the safety of yoga is still uncertain. There is some encouraging evidence of yoga for lowering SBP and DBP. However, due to low methodological quality of these identified trials, a definite conclusion about the efficacy and safety of yoga on EH cannot be drawn from this review. Therefore, further thorough investigation, large-scale, proper study designed, randomized trials of yoga for hypertension will be required to justify the effects reported here.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · PLoS ONE
    • "Its safety profile is excellent. Its use as a complementary therapeutic regimen under medical supervision is appropriate and could be worth considering (Mamtani, 2005). The literature suggests that some CAM approaches may be beneficial as adjuncts to conventional management of cardiovascular disease, but no evidence exists to support their role as primary treatment (Koscielny et al., 1999; Miller et al., 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: Plants have served as traditional herbal medicines for long time, and natural products make excellent leads for new drug development. These products are mostly secondary metabolites, and have become medicines, dietary supplements, and other useful commercial products. These active lead compounds can also be further modified to enhance the biological profiles and developed as clinical trial candidates. The efficacy and safety of any pharmaceutical product is determined by the components (desired and undesired) which it contains. Mixture of compounds produced by plants may provide important combination therapies that simultaneously affect multiple pharmacological targets and provide clinical efficacy beyond the reach of single compound-based drugs. Developing innovative scientific methods for discovery, validation, characterization and standardization of these components is essential to their acceptance into mainstream medicine. In this review, we focus on latest developments in plant products research at global level with special reference to safety, efficacy and preclinical evaluation for various diseases that are reported in different laboratories.
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    • "This review also included studies which used Ayurveda as their mode of intervention. Ayurveda is an ancient Asian practice of which yoga is an integral component (42). "
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of practicing yoga for the management of type II Diabetes was assessed in this systematic review through searching related electronic databases and the grey literature to the end of May 2007 using Ovid. All randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) comparing yoga practice with other type of intervention or with regular practice or both, were included regardless of language or type of publication. Each study was assessed for quality by two independent reviewers. Mean difference was used for summarizing the effect of each study outcomes with 95% confidence intervals. Pooling of the studies did not take place due to the wide clinical variation between the studies. Publication bias was assessed by statistical methods. Five trials with 363 participants met the inclusion criteria with medium to high risk of bias and different intervention characteristics. The studies' results show improvement in outcomes among patients with diabetes type II. These improvements were mainly among short term or immediate diabetes outcomes and not all were statistically significant. The results were inconclusive and not significant for the long-term outcomes. No adverse effects were reported in any of the included studies. Short-term benefits for patients with diabetes may be achieved from practicing yoga. Further research is needed in this area. Factors like quality of the trials and other methodological issues should be improved by large randomized control trials with allocation concealment to assess the effectiveness of yoga on diabetes type II. A definitive recommendation for physicians to encourage their patients to practice yoga cannot be reached at present.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2008 · Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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