Living Donor Candidates for Right Hepatic Lobe Transplantation: Evaluation at CT Cholangiography—Initial Experience1
Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco, Box 0628, C-324C, 505 Parnassus Ave, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628, USA. Radiology
(Impact Factor: 6.87).
07/2005; 235(3):899-904. DOI: 10.1148/radiol.2353040424
To retrospectively evaluate computed tomographic (CT) cholangiography in the depiction of second-order biliary tract anatomy in living donor candidates for right hepatic lobe transplantation.
Human research committee approval was obtained, informed consent was not required, and the study was compliant with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. The authors identified all living right-lobe liver donor candidates who underwent CT cholangiography at their institution between October 2001 (when CT cholangiography was introduced at the institution) and March 2003 (n = 62). There were 41 men (mean age, 36 years; range, 18-55 years) and 21 women (mean age, 40 years; range, 22-55 years). Two readers in consensus rated quality of second-order bile duct visualization at CT cholangiography on a four-point scale (0, not seen; 3, excellent visualization) and noted the presence of variant second-order biliary tract branching anatomy. CT cholangiography findings were compared with those at surgery in subjects who underwent right hepatic lobe retrieval (n = 24). In addition, adult donors who underwent right hepatic lobe retrieval between January 2000 and March 2003 (29 men, mean age, 35 years [range, 20-52 years]; 18 women, mean age, 38 years [range, 23-54 years]) were identified. Numbers of donors who underwent intraoperative cholangiography before and after the introduction of CT cholangiography were compared by using the Fisher exact test.
The mean second-order bile duct score at CT cholangiography was 2.9 (range, 2-3). Of 24 subjects who underwent right lobe retrieval, biliary tract anatomy determined at CT cholangiography was concordant with findings at surgery in 23 (96%). Variant second-order branching anatomy was seen in 13 subjects (54%) at surgery; one variant branch was missed at CT cholangiography. Of 47 subjects who underwent right hepatic lobe retrieval, significantly fewer subjects required conventional intraoperative cholangiography after the introduction of CT cholangiography (three of 24 subjects [12%]) than before (23 of 23 subjects; P < .0001).
CT cholangiography accurately depicts biliary tract anatomy in living donor candidates for right hepatic lobe transplantation, and donors who undergo preoperative CT cholangiography are unlikely to need conventional intraoperative cholangiography.
Available from: Nils Dahlström
- "The main reported advantage to MRI and MRC was the superior mapping of the biliary tree  – in other respects the two modalities were considered equivalent for the planning . After introduction of CTC, the use of an intraoperative cholangiogram has been reported to be significantly reduced at living donor liver transplantation . After liver surgery, there is a risk of biliary leaks. "
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ABSTRACT: Computed Tomography Cholangiography (CTC) is a fast and widely available alternative technique to visualise hepatobiliary disease in patients with an inconclusive ultrasound when MRI cannot be performed. The method has previously been relatively unknown and sparsely used, due to concerns about adverse reactions and about image quality in patients with impaired hepatic function and thus reduced contrast excretion. In this retrospective study, the feasibility and the frequency of adverse reactions of CTC when using a drip infusion scheme based on bilirubin levels were evaluated.
The medical records of patients who had undergone upper abdominal spiral CT with subsequent three-dimensional rendering of the biliary tract by means of CTC during seven years were retrospectively reviewed regarding serum bilirubin concentration, adverse reaction and presence of visible contrast media in the bile ducts at CT examination. In total, 153 consecutive examinations in 142 patients were reviewed.
Contrast media was observed in the bile ducts at 144 examinations. In 110 examinations, the infusion time had been recorded in the medical records. Among these, 42 examinations had an elevated bilirubin value (>19 micromol/L). There were nine patients without contrast excretion; 3 of which had a normal bilirubin value and 6 had an elevated value (25-133 micromol/L). Two of the 153 examinations were inconclusive. One subject (0.7%) experienced a minor adverse reaction - a pricking sensation in the face. No other adverse effects were noted.
We conclude that drip infusion CTC with an infusion rate of the biliary contrast agent iotroxate governed by the serum bilirubin value is a feasible and safe alternative to MRC in patients with and without impaired biliary excretion. In this retrospective study the feasibility and the frequency of adverse reactions when using a drip infusion scheme based on bilirubin levels has been evaluated.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "The biliary system can be evaluated with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), CT cholangiography  and MR cholangiography (MRC). MRC, utilising heavily T2W pulse sequences, accurately depicts biliary anatomy in potential LDLT donors and guides the intra-operative management of the biliary tract . "
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ABSTRACT: Liver transplantation is the most effective treatment for various end-stage liver diseases. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) was first developed in Asia due to the severe lack of cadaveric graft in this region. The Liver Transplant Service at Queen Mary Hospital (QMH), Hong Kong, has pioneered the application of LDLT to patients using both left lobe and right lobe grafts. The QMH liver transplant programme is the largest of its kind in China and Southeast Asia.
Ultrasound (US) is often employed in the initial work-up of potential donor and recipient of LDLT. It is the imaging technique of choice to assess the early and late complications of LDLT, with colour Doppler ultrasound being the most useful in the evaluation of post-LDLT vascular complications. The use of ultrasound contrast agents improves the visualisation of the hepatic vasculature, possibly delaying or removing the need for more invasive investigations. Intra-operative ultrasound facilitates the determination of the resection plane during donor hepactectomy.
Computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used as the single imaging modality in the evaluation of LDLT candidates.
Ultrasound is most useful as the initial screening test in detecting hepatic parenchymal abnormalities, while CT or MRI is the modality of choice in the demonstration of vascular and biliary anatomy of the potential liver donor.
Biliary complications are more common in LDLT than in cadaveric liver transplantation. The ductal dilatation, resulting from biliary stricture, is clearly demonstrated by ultrasound. Bilomas can be aspirated under ultrasound guidance to confirm the diagnosis and to promote healing. Perihepatic fluid collections and abscesses are also common after LDLT. Intra-hepatic collections may represent seromas, haematomas or infarction. Ultrasound is a sensitive means of detecting these collections and can be employed to guide drainage in suitable patients.
Transplant-related malignancies include recurrent neoplasia and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD). Ultrasound can be used to screen for recurrent disease and to detect PTLD in the transplanted liver.
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ABSTRACT: Radiology is a key specialty within a liver transplant program. Interventional techniques not only contribute to graft and recipient survival but also allow appropriate patient selection and ensure that recipients with severe liver decompensation, hepatocellular carcinoma or portal hypertension are transplanted with the best chance of prolonged survival. Equally inappropriate selection for these techniques may adversely affect survival. Liver transplantation is a dynamic field of innovative surgical techniques with a requirement for interventional radiology to parallel these developments. This paper reviews the current practice within a major European center for adult and pediatric transplantation.
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