Acute effects of self-paced walking on urges to smoke during temporary smoking abstinence

School of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, Devon EX1 2LU, UK.
Psychopharmacology (Impact Factor: 3.88). 09/2005; 181(1):1-7. DOI: 10.1007/s00213-005-2216-4
Source: PubMed


Recent research highlights the need to extend our understanding of how exercise may aid smoking cessation, through exploration of different modes, intensity and duration of exercise.
The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of a 1-mile self-paced walk on different measures of urges to smoke following temporary smoking abstinence.
In a within-subject counterbalanced design, following 15 h of smoking abstinence, participants (N=15) exercised or sat passively on separate days. A single-item measure of strength of desire to smoke was administered during, immediately post, and at 10 and 20 min post-treatment. The two-factor Questionnaire for Smoking Urges, involving intention and desire to engage in smoking behaviour which is anticipated as pleasant, enjoyable and satisfying (desire-behave), and anticipation of relief from negative affect through smoking (desire-affect relief), was administered before and 20 min post-treatment.
A two-way repeated-measures MANOVA revealed a significant overall interaction effect for time by condition for strength of desire to smoke, and the two QSU scales. Two-way repeated-measures univariate ANOVAs revealed significant interaction effects for time by condition for each of the three urges to smoke measures. Planned contrasts revealed that exercise reduced cigarette cravings for up to 20 min after exercise, in comparison with the control condition. ANCOVAs revealed mixed support for independent effects of exercise on all measures of urges to smoke.
A self-paced walk, at a low intensity, lasting 15-20 min can have a rapid and measurable positive effect on both single and multi-item measures of urges to smoke, lasting at least 20 min, during temporary smoking abstinence.

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    • "In relation to combined smoking cessation and physical activity interventions, it has been suggested that cognitive mechanisms underlying both types of change are similar [22,33]. However, a systematic review of 13 studies that encouraged both physical activity and smoking cessation revealed that only one successfully encouraged cessation and improved exercise capacity at 12 months [34]. "
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    ABSTRACT: This paper explores smoking cessation participants' perceptions of attempting weight management alongside smoking cessation within the context of a health improvement intervention implemented in Glasgow, Scotland. One hundred and thirty-eight participants were recruited from smoking cessation classes in areas of multiple deprivation in Glasgow and randomised to intervention, receiving dietary advice, or to control groups. The primary outcome of the study was to determine the % change in body weight. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 15 intervention and 15 control participants at weeks 6 (during the intervention) and 24 (at the end of the intervention). The current paper, though predominantly qualitative, links perceptions of behaviour modification to % weight change and cessation rates at week 24 thereby enabling a better understanding of the mediators influencing multiple behaviour change. Our findings suggest that participants who perceive separate behaviour changes as part of a broader approach to a healthier lifestyle, and hence attempt behaviour changes concurrently, may be at comparative advantage in positively achieving dual outcomes. These findings highlight the need to assess participants' preference for attempting multiple behaviour changes sequentially or simultaneously in addition to assessing their readiness to change. Further testing of this hypothesis is warranted. ISRCTN94961361.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · BMC Public Health
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    • "A random effects model was used as significant heterogeneity was indicated (I 2 094 %, p<0.00001). Sensitivity analyses revealed that, based on effect size, two studies were responsible for the heterogeneity (Ussher et al. 2001; Taylor et al. 2005), both of which reported large reductions in strength of desire to smoke. When excluding these two studies from the analysis, the I 2 statistic was reduced from 94 to 0 % (p00.63). "
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    ABSTRACT: Smoking cessation is associated with cigarette cravings and tobacco withdrawal symptoms (TWS), and exercise appears to ameliorate many of these negative effects. A number of studies have examined the relationships between exercise, cigarette cravings, and TWS. The objectives of this study were (a) to review and update the literature examining the effects of short bouts of exercise on cigarette cravings, TWS, affect, and smoking behaviour and (b) to conduct meta-analyses of the effect of exercise on cigarette cravings. A systematic review of all studies published between January 2006 and June 2011 was conducted. Fifteen new studies were identified, 12 of which found a positive effect of exercise on cigarette cravings. The magnitude of statistically significant effect sizes for 'desire to smoke' and 'strength of desire to smoke' ranged from 0.4 to 1.98 in favour of exercise compared to passive control conditions, and peaked either during or soon after treatment. Effects were found up to 30 min post-exercise. Cigarette cravings were reduced following exercise with a wide range of intensities from isometric exercise and yoga to activity as high as 80-85 % heart rate reserve. Meta-analyses revealed weighted mean differences of -1.90 and -2.41 in 'desire to smoke' and 'strength of desire to smoke' outcomes, respectively. Measures of TWS and negative affect were reduced following light-moderate intensity exercise, but increased during vigorous exercise. Exercise can have a positive effect on cigarette cravings and TWS. However, the most effective exercise intensity to reduce cravings and the underlying mechanisms associated with this effect remain unclear.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Psychopharmacology
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    • "The present findings are generally consistent with the hypothesis that exercise may reduce the affective motivation for smoking and thus may serve as valuable coping tool during smoking cessation (Taylor et al., 2005). However, only positive affect change was associated with reduced craving, and mood changes did not specifically mediate the effects of exercise on "
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have examined the effects of physical activity on craving to smoke and smoking withdrawal. The current study was designed to compare and contrast the effects of 2 different forms of physical activity on general and cue-elicited craving to smoke. Following 1-hr nicotine abstinence, 76 daily smokers were randomly assigned to engage in a 30-min bout of cardiovascular exercise (CE; brisk walk on a treadmill), Hatha yoga (HY), or a nonactivity control condition. Participants completed measures of craving and mood, and a smoking cue reactivity assessment, before, immediately following, and approximately 20 min after the physical activity or control conditions. Compared with the control condition, participants in each of the physical activity groups reported a decrease in craving to smoke, an increase in positive affect, and a decrease in negative affect. In addition, craving in response to smoking cues was specifically reduced among those who engaged in CE, whereas those who engaged in HY reported a general decrease in cravings. This study provides further support for the use of exercise bouts for attenuating cigarette cravings during temporary nicotine abstinence. Results also suggest that CE can attenuate cravings in response to smoking cues. There are several areas for further research that may improve integration of exercise within smoking cessation treatment.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Nicotine & Tobacco Research
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