High-Resolution CT of the Lung: Patterns of Disease and Differential Diagnoses
Department of Radiology, San Francisco General Hospital, University of California at San Francisco, 1001 Potrero Avenue, Room 1X 55, Box 1325, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA. Radiologic Clinics of North America
(Impact Factor: 1.98).
06/2005; 43(3):513-42, viii. DOI: 10.1016/j.rcl.2005.01.010
High-resolution CT (HRCT) of the lung is a powerful tool for the investigation of patients with acute or chronic respiratory symptoms or diffuse parenchymal lung disease. Detailed knowledge of normal pulmonary anatomy and an understanding of how normal anatomy is altered in disease states are required to appreciate fully HRCT findings in patients with pulmonary disease. Detailed knowledge of the technical aspects of HRCT examinations is required for optimal image quality. With the proper foundation, a pattern approach to HRCT interpretation may then be used successfully to provide accurate and reproducible interpretation.
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- "That is : MNs are mostly located in sub pleural regions, in broncho vascular bundles and sometimes in interlobular septae [3,8,16] indicating that the disease is related to lymphatic system from another point of view. This kind of distribution of MNs can also be seen in patients with lymphangitis carcinomatosa and amiloidosis [10,18]. The distribution of MNs was also perilymphatic in our study patients. "
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Chest-X-ray has several limitations in detecting the extent of pulmonary disease in sarcoidosis. It might not reflect the degree of pulmonary involvement in patients with sarcoidosis when compared to computed tomography of the thorax. We aimed to investigate the HRCT findings of pulmonary sarcoidosis and to find out the existence of possible relations between HRCT findings and PFTs. In addition, we aimed to investigate the accordance between HRCT findings and conventional chest-X-ray staging of pulmonary sarcoidosis.
45 patients with sarcoidosis with a mean age 29.7+/− 8.4 years were evaluated. Six of them were female and 39 were male. The type, distribution and extent of the parameters on HRCT/CTs were evaluated and scored. Chest-X-rays were evaluated for the stage of pulmonary sarcoidosis. Correlations were investigated between HRCT/CT parameter scores, Chest X-Ray stages and pulmonary function parameters.
Nodule, micronodule, ground glass opacity and consolidation were the most common HRCT findings. There were significant correlations between pulmonary function parameters, HRCT pattern scores, and chest-X-ray stages. A significant correlation between chest-x-ray score and total HRCT score was found.
Pulmonary sarcoidosis patients might have various pulmonary parenchymal changes on HRCT. Thorax HRCT was superior to chest-X-ray in detecting pulmonary parenchymal abnormalities. The degree of pulmonary involvement might be closely related to the loss of pulmonary function measured by PFTs. Chest-X-ray is considered to have a role in the evaluation of pulmonary sarcoidosis.
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- "To make things even more complicated, there may be overlap of HRCT patterns in one entity. In everyday clinical practice one should try to combine the different HRCT patterns or identify the predominant pattern in order to make the correct diagnosis [2, 3]. Integration of HRCT findings with clinical findings and the knowledge of acute or chronic symptoms is crucial to reach the correct diagnosis. "
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ABSTRACT: Septal, reticular, nodular, reticulonodular, ground-glass, crazy paving, cystic, ground-glass with reticular, cystic with ground-glass, decreased and mosaic attenuation pattern characterise interstitial lung diseases on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Occasionally different entities mimic each other, either because they share identical HRCT findings or because of superimposition of patterns. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), fibrosis associated with connective tissue disease, asbestosis, end-stage sarcoidosis or chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) may present with lower zone, subpleural reticular pattern associated with honeycombing. Lymphangiomyomatosis may be indistinguishable from histiocytosis or extensive emphysema. Both pulmonary oedema and lymphangitic carcinomatosis may be characterised by septal pattern resulting from thickened interlobular septa. Ill-defined centrilobular nodular pattern may be identically present in HP and respiratory bronchiolitis–associated with interstitial lung disease (RBILD). Sarcoidosis may mimic miliary tuberculosis or haematogenous metastases presenting with miliary pattern, while endobronchial spread of tuberculosis may be indistinguishable from panbronchiolitis, both presenting with tree-in-bud pattern. Atypical infection presenting with ground-glass mimics haemorrhage. Ground-glass pattern with minimal reticulation is seen in desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP), RBILD and non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). Obliterative bronchiolitis and panlobular emphysema may present with decreased attenuation pattern, while obliterative bronchiolitis, chronic pulmonary embolism and HP may manifest with mosaic attenuation pattern. Various mimics in interstitial lung diseases exist. Differential diagnosis is narrowed based on integration of predominant HRCT pattern and clinical history.
• To learn about the different HRCT patterns, which are related to interstitial lung diseases.
• To be familiar with the more “classical” entities presenting with each HRCT pattern.
• To discuss possible overlap of different HRCT patterns and the more common mimics in each case.
• To learn about some clues that help differentiate the various diagnostic mimics on HRCT.
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