Article

Behavioural treatments for chronic systemic inflammation: effects of dietary weight loss and exercise training. CMAJ

Sticht Center on Aging, Section on Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA.
Canadian Medical Association Journal (Impact Factor: 5.96). 05/2005; 172(9):1199-209. DOI: 10.1503/cmaj.1040769
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Persistent low-grade inflammation, as indicated by higher circulating levels of inflammatory mediators such as C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha, is a strong risk factor for several chronic diseases. There are data indicating that decreasing energy intake and increasing physical activity may be effective therapies for reducing overall inflammation. Evidence is strong that circulating levels of inflammatory markers are elevated with total and abdominal obesity, possibly owing to a higher secretion rate of cytokines by adipose tissue in obese people. Moreover, very-low-energy dietary weight loss reduces both circulating markers of inflammation and adipose-tissue cytokine production. Data from several large population-based cohorts show an inverse association between markers of systemic inflammation and physical activity or fitness status; small-scale intervention studies support that exercise training diminishes inflammation. Dietary weight loss plus exercise is likely more effective than weight reduction alone in reducing inflammation. To date, data from randomized, controlled trails designed to definitively test the effects of weight loss or exercise training, or both, on inflammation are limited. Future studies are required to define the amount of weight loss needed for clinically meaningful reductions of inflammation; in addition, fully powered and controlled studies are necessary to clarify the effect of exercise training on chronic, systemic inflammation.

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    • "Several studies have shown that obese people and/or patients with T2D have increased serum levels of IL-6 (Pradhan et al., 2001). Conversely, IL-6 levels decrease when obese people lose weight (Nicklas et al., 2005). In the last 20 years it has become clear that obesity is associated with low grade chronic inflammationHotamisligil, 2006). "

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    • "Increased production of anti-inflammatory mediators by adipocytes and decreased hepatic production of fibrinogen and other proinflammatory mediators are other consequences of exercise-induced weight reduction. Weight loss also influences the immune system by reducing the number of mononuclear cells in the circulation; these are important sources of proinflammatory cytokines [122]. The effect of exercise training on reducing the expression of TNF-α in white adipose tissue has been shown in several animal studies, as well [123–125]. "
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