Cyanide fishing and cyanide detection in coral reef fish using chemical tests and biosensors
Department of Chemistry, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.Biosensors & Bioelectronics (Impact Factor: 6.41). 07/2005; 20(12):2581-93. DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2004.09.015
Sodium cyanide has been used in the Philippines to collect tropical marine fish for aquarium and food trades since the early 1960s. Cyanide fishing is a fast method to stun and collect fish. This practice is damaging the coral reefs irreversibly. In most countries cyanide fishing is illegal, but most of the exporting and importing countries do not have test and certificate systems. Many analytical methods are available for the detection of cyanide in environmental and biological samples. However, most of the techniques are time consuming, and some lack specificity or sensitivity. Besides, an ultra sensitive cyanide detection method is needed due to the rapid detoxification mechanisms in fish. The aim of this review is to give an overview of cyanide fishing problem in the south-east Asia and current strategies to combat this destructive practice, summarise some of the methods for cyanide detection in biological samples and their disadvantages. A novel approach to detect cyanide in marine fish tissues is briefly discussed.
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- "Illegal resource use can detrimentally affect affiliated species and habitats, reduce biodiversity, and jeopardize the success of protected areas (Pitcher et al., 2002; Turpie et al., 2003; Mak et al., 2005). Additionally, numerous well-documented social and community level impacts of non-compliance such as mistrust of regulators, and tensions among resource users and within the broader public can undermine conservation efforts and ultimately lead to management failure (Pitcher et al., 2002; Turpie et al., 2003; Faasen and Watts, 2007). "
ABSTRACT: Illegal fishing has detrimental environmental and social impacts, but these effects are difficult to mitigate without reliable estimates of fisher noncompliance. This research makes a case for the use of the randomized response technique (RRT) as a tool to inform conservation policy with respect to regulatory compliance. RRT was used to generate estimates of non-compliance in the Northern California recreational red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) fishery before and after the introduction of new tagging regulations and marine protected areas (MPAs). Anonymous paper-based compliance and sociodemographic surveys were conducted with recreational fishers in Sonoma and Mendocino Counties in August of 2007 and 2011. The 2011 survey found reductions in illegal take across most violation types, and since the introduction of on-animal tagging regulations the proportional daily take limit violation among local residents was found to have decreased from 72% to 43%. The results indicate higher non-compliance rates among visitors than local fishers regarding licensing laws, minimum size limits, and annual catch limits. Locals were proportionately more likely to violate the daily catch limit and the new regulations, though 85% of the fishers surveyed were aware of them. The rule-specific violation estimates RRT generates provide managers with a level of detail about non-compliant behavior that is unique, and can point to opportunities for improving managerial communication and enforcement.
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- "CN À strongly interacts with the cytochrome a 3 active sites and inhibits cellular respiration in mammalian cells  . Cyanide fishing  also pollutes waters in areas used for fishing for exotic fish, such as the coral reefs, and is a component of tabun, which is a chemical warfare agent . Currently, various analytical methods have been developed to determine cyanide ion content, such as chromatographic , fluorometric , flow injection  and electrochemical  analyses . "
ABSTRACT: A short, high-yielding route to pyranylidene Iminium (Imi) salts using a new pyrylium salt reaction between N,N-Dimethylformamide (DMF) and acetic anhydride is reported. The Imi salt-sensing behavior toward various anions has been investigated using UV-Visible spectroscopy. The Imi salt demonstrates high selectively for CN(-) when various other anions, such as CN(-), Cl(-), Br(-), I(-), SCN(-), ClO4(-), NO3(-), HSO4(-), PF6(-) and N3(-), are present because it is highly reactive towards nucleophiles. The selective detection of CN(-) with the Imi unit gave rise to a significant hypochromic shift in the CH3CN solution at λmax=444nm and 423nm and creation of new peak at 252nm. These studies indicated that CN(-) had high affinity toward Imi, forming a 1:1 complex; this observation agrees with the current understanding of these materials.
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- "Because cyanide solution is squeezed onto the reef in a diffuse cloud, fishers cannot target single organisms. Consequently, non-target species and organisms are killed (Barber and Pratt 1998; Rubec et al. 2001), including the eggs and larvae of species desired by fishers (Mak et al. 2005). Overfishing in general results in further reduction of the species' ability to reproduce itself (Pet and Pet-Soede 1999), and heavy fishing with certain types of gear can fundamentally alter habitats as well (Bellwood et al. 2004). "
ABSTRACT: The marine aquarium trade has played an important role in shaping the ecological state of coral reefs in Indonesia and much of the Asia-Pacific. The use of cyanide by ornamental fishers in Buleleng District, Bali, in the 1980s and 1990s has resulted in a precipitous decline in the ecological health of reefs. Cyanide-free harvesting techniques were introduced after 2000, along with reef restoration measures. This paper examines social and ecological processes in the fishing village of Les, Bali, in ending the use of cyanide and the resulting ecological restoration. An emphasis on conservation-development (with livelihood objectives) was important in securing interest and cooperation across stakeholder groups. Adaptive approaches to governance and knowledge co-production were also important. The strategy used at Les is now being exported to other communities across Indonesia, and provides a promising example of a marine resources-based conservation-development initiative that may be implemented at other, similar communities. © content is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
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