Article

Food Habits and Nutritional Status Assessment of Adolescent Soccer Players. A Necessary and Accurate Approach

Facultad de Medicina, Dept. de Biología Funcional (Fisiología), Univ. de Oviedo, Oviedo, Asturias, Spain.
Canadian journal of applied physiology = Revue canadienne de physiologie appliquée (Impact Factor: 1.3). 03/2005; 30(1):18-32. DOI: 10.1139/h05-102
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to assess the food habits and nutritional status of high level adolescent soccer players (N = 33; ages 14-16 yrs) living in their home environment. Body composition (height, mass, skinfolds), biochemical and hematological parameters, performance in soccer-specific tests (sprinting, jumping, intermittent endurance), and dietary intake (weighed food intake method) and related behaviors (nutrient supplement use, daily activity profile) were assessed. Daily energy expenditure and energy intake were 12.5 MJ and 12.6 MJ, respectively. Protein (16% of energy intake; 1.9 g/kg of body mass), lipid (38%), and cholesterol (385 mg) intake were above recommendations, while carbohydrates (45%) were below. The food intake of these adolescents was based on cereals and derivates; meat, fish, and eggs; milk and dairy products; biscuits and confectionery; and oil, butter and margarine, which provided 78% of total energy intake, 85% of proteins, 64% of carbohydrates, 90% of lipids, and 47% of fiber. Although diet provided sufficient iron, 48% of individuals showed iron deficiency without anemia. Based on these results, a well designed nutrition intervention would be advisable for optimizing performance, and especially for promoting healthy eating habits in adolescent soccer players.

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Available from: Eduardo Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Jul 29, 2014
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    • "Standing, walking, and low intensity running account for 90– 95% of total match time during elite female soccer matches (Krustrup et al., 2005; Mohr et al., 2008), however the amount of sprinting performed during a match can distinguish between higher and lower standards of play (Mohr et al., 2003, 2008). Yet there is a disparity in the literature with the number of studies that characterize anaerobic performance in male players (Davis et al., 1992; Reilly et al., 2000a, b; Cometti et al., 2001; Chamari et al., 2004; Iglesias-Gutierrez et al., 2005; Gissis et al., 2006; Vaeyens et al., 2006; Gil et al., 2007; Mujika et al., 2009) far exceeding the number of published reports for female players (Hoare & Warr, 2000; Vescovi et al., 2006; Mujika et al., 2009). "

    Full-text · Dataset · Aug 2014
    • "Regarding the qualitative distribution of fats, we found a profile very similar to Spanish (IglesiasGutiérrez et al., 2005;Ruiz et al., 2005), and far from French (Boisseau et al., 2002) and British (Russell & Pennock, 2011) players, reflecting the Mediterranean nature of the diet in Iberian countries. We found a high proportion of athletes with micronutrient intakes lower than recommended, resembling the results in players (Gutiérrez et al., 2005;Noda et al., 2009). The low intake of antioxidant vitamins observed may weaken the antioxidant defence of referees. "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract There is a paucity of dietary data in football referees. In this study, 23 elite main and assistant referees (34.4 ± 5.6 years) completed a 7-day dietary record during the competitive season. No nutritional intake differences were observed between main and assistant referees. Referees' mean daily energy intake (DEI) was 2819 ± 279 kcal. The intake of proteins (1.7 ± 0.2 g · kg(-1)), carbohydrates (4.1 ± 0.8 g · kg(-1)) and fats (1.4 ± 0.2 g · kg(-1)) represented, respectively, 18.4 ± 1.5%, 44.4 ± 4.4% and 34.6 ± 4.1% of the DEI. Carbohydrate intakes before, during and after exercise were 66 ± 42, 7 ± 15 and 120 ± 62 g. Daily carbohydrate, fibre, polyunsaturated fat and water intakes were below recommendations, while fat, saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium intakes were above recommended values. The prevalence of inadequate intake was high for vitamin E (96%), folate (74%), vitamin A (61%), vitamin C (39%), magnesium (26%) and calcium (22%). Carbohydrate intake before, during and after exercise were far from achieving the minimum recommended values. Most referees demonstrated a negligent behaviour of hydration during exercise. Referees would benefit from dietary education in order to optimise performance and health.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Journal of Sports Sciences
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    • "Standing, walking, and low intensity running account for 90– 95% of total match time during elite female soccer matches (Krustrup et al., 2005; Mohr et al., 2008), however the amount of sprinting performed during a match can distinguish between higher and lower standards of play (Mohr et al., 2003, 2008). Yet there is a disparity in the literature with the number of studies that characterize anaerobic performance in male players (Davis et al., 1992; Reilly et al., 2000a, b; Cometti et al., 2001; Chamari et al., 2004; Iglesias-Gutierrez et al., 2005; Gissis et al., 2006; Vaeyens et al., 2006; Gil et al., 2007; Mujika et al., 2009) far exceeding the number of published reports for female players (Hoare & Warr, 2000; Vescovi et al., 2006; Mujika et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Performance assessment has become an invaluable component of monitoring player development and within talent identification programs in soccer, yet limited performance data are available for female soccer players across a wide age range. The aim of this study was to describe the physical performance characteristics of female soccer players ranging in age from 12 to 21 years. High-level female soccer players (n=414) were evaluated on linear sprinting (36.6 m with 9.1 m splits), countermovement jump (CMJ), and two agility tests. Separate one-way ANOVAs were used to compare performance characteristics between (1) each year of chronological age and (2) three age groups: 12-13 years, n=78, 14-17 years, n=223, and 18-21 years, n=113. Mean linear sprint speed over 9.1 m was similar across all chronological ages, however sprint speed over the final 9.1 m, CMJ height and agility scores improved until approximately 15-16 years. Outcomes from the group data indicated better performance on all tests for the 14-17-year-old group compared with the 12-13-year-old group. Additionally, sprint speed on the second and fourth 9.1 m splits and 36.6 m sprint speed as well as performance on the Illinois agility test was better in the 18-21-year-old group compared with the 14-17-year-old group. The findings from this study indicate that marked improvements of high intensity short duration work occur up until 15-16 years. Smaller gains in performance were observed beyond 16 years of age as evidenced by better performance on 36.6 m sprint speed, several sprint splits and the Illinois agility test in the college aged players (i.e., 18-21-year-old group).
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