Risk Indicators of Periodontal Disease in Older Thai Adults
The aim of this study was to identify risk indicators for periodontitis using cross-sectional data from a group of older Thai adults. The study group consisted of 2,005 individuals, aged 50 to 73 years old. They received detailed medical examinations and periodontal examinations including plaque score, probing depth, and clinical attachment level. These individuals were categorized into mild, moderate, or severe periodontitis if mean clinical attachment level was <2.5 mm, 2.5 to 3.9 mm, or > or = 4.0 mm, respectively. The degree of association between the severity of periodontitis and various independent variables was investigated using multinomial logistic regression analysis. The percentage of subjects classified as mild, moderate, and severe periodontitis was 30.5, 53.6, and 15.9, respectively. The prevalence of severe periodontitis was higher in males and increased with age. In univariate analysis, older subjects, males, less educated persons, persons with lower income, persons with higher plaque score, smokers, drinkers, and diabetics were more likely to have both moderate and severe periodontitis. In multivariate analysis, males, less educated persons, persons with higher plaque score, and current smokers were more likely to have moderate periodontitis. Three additional factors including older age, former smokers, and diabetes significantly increased the odds for having severe periodontitis. Income, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and waist circumference had no significant effects on periodontal disease severity in the multivariate model. Our data suggest that age, gender, education, oral hygiene status, smoking, and diabetes are significantly associated with periodontal disease severity in this study group. Longitudinal studies will establish whether these variables are true risk factors.