Epilepsy after the Decade of the Brain: Misunderstandings, challenges, and opportunities

ArticleinEpilepsy & Behavior 6(3):296-302 · June 2005with4 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2005.02.009 · Source: PubMed
    • "Epilepsy is characterized by recurrent seizures that are unpredictable and sometimes progressively severe. It is also associated with significant mortality and morbidities (Rice and DeLorenzo, 1998; Sutula, 2004 Sutula, , 2005). Some forms of epilepsy are caused by an inherited vulnerability to seizures, while other forms are a consequence of neurological insults such as head trauma, stroke, and tumors (Manning et al., 2002; Chang and Lowenstein, 2003; Inoki et al., 2005; Holmes and Stafstrom, 2007). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin has been shown to suppress seizures in TSC/PTEN genetic models. Rapamycin, when applied immediately before or after a neurological insult, also prevents the development of spontaneous recurrent seizures (epileptogenesis) in an acquired model. In the present study, we examined the mTOR pathway in rats that had already developed chronic spontaneous seizures in a pilocarpine model. We found that mTOR is aberrantly activated in brain tissues from rats with chronic seizures. Furthermore, inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin treatment significantly reduces seizure activity. Finally, mTOR inhibition also significantly suppresses mossy fiber sprouting. Our findings suggest the possibility for a much broader window for intervention for some acquired epilepsies by targeting the mTOR pathway.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2010
    • "The evolving tradition of the annual Hoyer Lecture is to use the occasion to take stock of where we are in the world of epilepsy, and where we may be headed. Indeed, in 2004, Tom Sutula, in his lecture entitled " Epilepsy After the Decade of the Brain: Misunderstandings, Challenges, and Opportunities, " explored some of the reasons why epilepsy is challenging for healthcare professionals and scientists and how it is often misunderstood by the public (Sutula, 2005). The following year, Jeff Noebels spoke of " New Tools to Cure Epilepsy: Genes, Pixels, Patterns and Prevention " (Noebels, 2006). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated functional reorganization mechanisms of the human medial temporal lobe (MTL) for episodic memory, in patients suffering from medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) with hippocampal sclerosis (HS). We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure brain activity changes during matched episodic encoding tasks of abstract words (Verbal) and line drawings (Visual), in patients with unilateral right MTLE undergoing presurgical evaluation and healthy controls. As expected, a significant interaction between material type and the side of MTL activity was present in the control group, with preferential involvement of the left hippocampus in verbal encoding and the right parahippocampal region in visual encoding. When compared with controls, right MTLE patients with intact performance activated a region in the left hippocampus more during visual encoding, which resulted in an interaction between group and hemisphere. Importantly, an effect of memory performance on visual encoding activity was observed in the patients, with greater engagement of the left MTL being associated with higher recognition scores. Interestingly, activity in the left MTL also depended on the epileptic seizure frequency, suggesting a role for this clinical parameter in the recruitment of contralateral regions. Taken together, these results indicate functional reorganization of the MTLs in right HS, through transfer of function from the right to the left hemisphere, and strongly suggest an adaptive role for such reorganization mechanism in supporting preserved visual memory.
    Full-text · Article · May 2008
    • "The evolving tradition of the annual Hoyer Lecture is to use the occasion to take stock of where we are in the world of epilepsy, and where we may be headed. Indeed, in 2004, Tom Sutula, in his lecture entitled " Epilepsy After the Decade of the Brain: Misunderstandings, Challenges, and Opportunities, " explored some of the reasons why epilepsy is challenging for healthcare professionals and scientists and how it is often misunderstood by the public (Sutula, 2005). The following year, Jeff Noebels spoke of " New Tools to Cure Epilepsy: Genes, Pixels, Patterns and Prevention " (Noebels, 2006). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper, based on the 4th Annual Hoyer Lecture presented at the 2006 annual meeting of the American Epilepsy Society, first provides a general view of the current limitations in therapies aimed at achieving the goal of "no seizures, no side effects" for patients living with epilepsy. Some of the seminal discoveries in epilepsy research over the past 100 years are then reviewed, with an emphasis on the pivotal role of basic and clinical/translational science in leading the way to new and effective means for diagnosing and treating for epilepsy. The paper concludes with a view of the future course of epilepsy research. Scientific advances will increasingly rely on the collaboration of multidisciplinary teams of researchers using the analytic and storage capabilities of machines, and linked together by communication tools such as the Internet and related technologies.
    Article · Feb 2008
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