Murphy, N. et al. p16INK4A, CDC6, and MCM5: predictive biomarkers in cervical preinvasive neoplasia and cervical cancer. J. Clin. Pathol. 58, 525-534

Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
Journal of Clinical Pathology (Impact Factor: 2.92). 06/2005; 58(5):525-34. DOI: 10.1136/jcp.2004.018895
Source: PubMed


To analyse and compare expression patterns of three potential biomarkers-p16(INK4A), CDC6, and MCM5-and evaluate their use as predictive biomarkers in squamous and glandular cervical preinvasive neoplasia.
Immunocytochemical analysis of p16(INK4A), MCM5, and CDC6 expression was performed on 20 normal, 38 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 (CIN1), 33 CIN2, 46 CIN3, 10 squamous cell carcinoma, 19 cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia (cGIN), and 10 adenocarcinoma samples. Staining intensity was assessed using a 0-3 scoring system. p16(INK4A), MCM5, and CDC6 expression was also examined in ThinPrep slides exhibiting mild, moderate, and severe dyskaryosis. Human papillomavirus (HPV) was detected using a modified SYBR green assay. Fluorogenic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and solution phase PCR were used for specific HPV typing.
All three markers showed a linear correlation between expression and grade of dysplasia. p16(INK4A) and MCM5 protein expression was upregulated in all grades of squamous and glandular dysplasia. CDC6 protein was preferentially expressed in high grade lesions and in invasive squamous cell carcinoma.
p16(INK4A) expression was closely associated with high risk HPV infection-all grades of squamous and glandular cervical lesions were immunohistochemically positive. MCM5 staining intensity was independent of high risk HPV infection, highlighting its potential as a biomarker in both HPV dependent and independent cervical dysplasia. CDC6 may be a biomarker of high grade and invasive lesions of the cervix, with limited use in low grade dysplasia. p16(INK4A) was the most reliable marker of cervical dysplasia. Combinations of dysplastic biomarkers may be useful in difficult diagnostic cases.

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    • "One of these strongly related to transforming HPV infection would be p16. Overexpression of p16 seems to increase with increasing degree of cervical lesion [28, 29]. A meta-analysis on p16 immunostaining on cytological and histological cervical specimens estimated that 2% of normal tissues and 38% of CIN1 showed diffuse staining, compared with 68% of CIN2 and 82% of CIN3 [30]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Although HPV-DNA test and E6/E7 mRNA analyses remain the current standard for the confirmation of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in cytological specimens, no universally adopted techniques exist for the detection of HPV in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples. Particularly, in routine laboratories, molecular assays are still time-consuming and would require a high level of expertise. In this study, we investigated the possible use of a novel HPV tyramide-based chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) technology to locate HPV on tissue specimens. Then, we evaluate the potential usefulness of p16(INK4a)/Ki-67 double stain on histological samples, to identify cervical cells expressing HPV E6/E7 oncogenes. In our series, CISH showed a clear signal in 95.2% of the specimens and reached a sensitivity of 86.5%. CISH positivity always matched with HPV-DNA positivity, while 100% of cases with punctated signal joined with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+). p16/Ki67 immunohistochemistry gave an interpretable result in 100% of the cases. The use of dual stain significantly increased the agreement between pathologists, which reached 100%. Concordance between dual stain and E6/E7 mRNA test was 89%. In our series, both CISH and p16(INK4a)/Ki67 dual stain demonstrated high grade of performances. In particular, CISH would help to distinguish episomal from integrated HPV, in order to allow conclusions regarding the prognosis of the lesion, while p16(INK4a)/Ki67 dual stain approach would confer a high level of standardization to the diagnostic procedure.
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    • "Despite a diagnostic value of p16INK4a in significantly improving the accuracy in making a diagnosis of the epithelial lesions of the uterine cervix, there are various exceptions that it should be used in combination with other markers in establishing a diagnosis in a routine clinical setting.12 Ki-67 has been used in combination with p16INK4a because it can be of help for making a differentiation of a high-grade CIN from benign mimickers. "
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    ABSTRACT: Immunohistochemical staining for p16INK4a and Ki-67 has been used to improve the accuracy in making a diagnosis of the uterine cervix cancer on biopsy. This study was conducted to examine the usefulness of these markers in the pathological diagnosis based on cervical biopsy. We selected a consecutive series of 111 colposcopically directed cervical punch biopsies. Using these biopsy samples, we performed an immunohistochemical staining for p16INK4a and Ki-67 to establish a diagnosis. The slides were circulated among four pathologists in a sequential order: the hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) slide, H&E slide and p16INK4a-stained slide, and H&E slide, p16INK4a- and Ki-67-stained slides. The overall rates of the concordance in the first, the second, and the third diagnoses were 77.5%, 82.0%, and 82.0%, respectively. The rate of the concordance in the diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasm (CIN) 2/3 was increased from 62.2% to 73.0%. But there was a variability in the rate of the revision of the diagnosis between the pathologists. With the application of criteria for interpreting the expressions of p16INK4a and Ki-67, benign and CIN 1 lesions showed a p16INK4a expression score of 0 or 1. But CIN 2 and CIN 3 lesions showed a p16INK4a expression score of 2 and 3, respectively. The immunostain for p16INK4a and Ki-67 might be useful in reducing an inter-observer variability. But criteria for interpreting both markers should be strictly applied.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2012
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    • "Recent researches highlight the role of p16, as an extremely sensitive marker for cervical epithelial dysplasia and high-risk HPV-type related neoplasia [9– 11, 29, 30], and for predicting SIL progression [13] [14]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The protein capsid L1 of the human papilloma virus (HPV) - a key factor in the cervical carcinogenesis - is considered, together with p16, EGFR and COX-2, a characteristic marker for the evaluation of the malignancy progression and prognostic, in terms of tumoral aggressiveness. The purpose of the present study was to make a comparative assessment between the immunohistochemical pattern of p16, EGFR and COX-2 and immunochemical expression of L1 HPV capsid protein, in low grade and high-grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions, in order to determine the relationship of these tumoral markers with the infection status of HPV, and their practical applicability in patients diagnosis and follow-up. The study group included 50 women with cytological and histopathological confirmed LSIL (low grade SIL) and HSIL (high-grade SIL). The immunoexpression of L1 HPV protein was assessed on conventional cervico-vaginal smears and EGFR, COX-2 and p16 were immunohistochemically evaluated on the corresponding cervical biopsies. From all cervical smears, the HPV L1 capsid protein was expressed in 52% of LSIL and 23% of HSIL. From all cervical biopsies, p16 was positive in 64% of LSIL, 82% of CIN2 and 100% of CIN3, EGFR was overexpressed in 67% of HSIL (56% CIN2 and 43% CIN3) and 32% LSIL. For COX-2, the Allred score was higher in HSIL when compared to LSIL. Our data revealed 33 cases belonging to both LSIL and HSIL categories with the same Allred score. Immunochemical detection of L1 capsid protein, on cervico-vaginal smears, indicates an immune status induced by the HPV infection and may offer prognosis information, mainly in LSIL lesions. The assessment of p16, EGFR, and COX-2 allows to an integrative approach for the progression of squamous intraepithelial lesion, associated or not with the HPV infection.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
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