Hypoglycemic Effects of Turmeric (Curcuma longa L. Rhizomes) on Genetically Diabetic KK-Ay Mice

ArticleinBiological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 28(5):937-9 · June 2005with579 Reads
DOI: 10.1248/bpb.28.937 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
The turmeric (Curcuma longa L. rhizomes) EtOH extract significantly suppressed an increase in blood glucose level in type 2 diabetic KK-A(y) mice. In an in vitro evaluation, the extract stimulated human adipocyte differentiation in a dose-dependent manner and showed human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma ligand-binding activity in a GAL4-PPAR-gamma chimera assay. The main constituents of the extract were identified as curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin, and ar-turmerone, which had also PPAR-gamma ligand-binding activity. These results indicate that turmeric is a promising ingredient of functional food for the prevention and/or amelioration of type 2 diabetes and that curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin, and ar-turmerone mainly contribute to the effects via PPAR-gamma activation.

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  • ... Curcumin also has antibacterial (Moghadamtousi et al., 2014;Yun & Lee, 2016), antiviral, and antifungal effects (Moghadamtousi et al., 2014). It has antidiabetic effects (Zhang, Fu, Gao, & Liu, 2013) and turmeric ethanolic extract (containing curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin) can decrease blood glucose in mice and prevent increase in blood glucose ( Kuroda et al., 2005). Oral administration of turmeric reduced proteinuria and hema- turia in patients with refractory lupus nephritis ( Khajehdehi et al., 2012). ...
  • ... Sodium Methyl Cysteine Sulphoxide (SMCS) (200mg/kg for 45 days), a sulfur-containing amino acid, was administered to alloxan-induced diabetic rats, which normalizes the activity of a hepatic kinase, glucose 6- phosphatase, and HMG CoA reductase [121,122]. Postprandial blood glucose levels were significantly regulated by oral administration of 50 g, onion juice to diabetic patients [123]. ...
  • ... Curcumin is known to exhibit potent antiinflammatory activities and thus potentially useful as adjunctive therapy for the management of inflammation-related conditions such as sepsis ( Xiao et al., 2012), diabetes ( Kuroda et al., 2005;Yu et al., 2012), arthritis ( Shakinaei et al., 2005), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) ( Holt et al., 2005), gastritis ( Kim et al., 2005;Swarnakar et al., 2005) and fever ( Shao et al., 2004). Antiinflammatory activities displayed by curcumin are attributed to its effects on the inactivation of NF-κB and consequent downregulation of proinflammatory cytokine production ( Shin et al., 2010). ...
    ... Liver and spleen are involved in host innate immune response to bacterial stimuli ( Jia & Pamer, 2009;Swirski et al., 2009). During acute B. pseudomallei infection, the hepatic and splenic organs are among the most affected organs ( Kuroda et al., 2005;Apisarnthanarak et al., 2006). Here we report that there was no significant difference between the B. pseudomallei loads in liver and spleen of curcumin-treated and non-treated mice (P>0.05). ...
  • ... Murugan and Pari (2006) Inhibited the glucose level enhancement in hyperglycemic KK-A(y) mice Stimulated the human adipocyte diversity in a dose-dependent manner and shown human PPAR-γ ligandbinding activity in a GAL4-PPAR-gamma whimsy assay Kuroda et al. (2005) Reduced the glucose level, FFAs, glycosylated hemoglobin, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and lipid per-oxidation levels Enhanced the hepatic glycokinase activity and plasma insulin points in C57BL/Ks-db/db diabetic rats Arun and Nalini (2002) Attenuated insulin resistance, and reduction in leptin levels Lowered blood sugar glucose level, reduces TNF-α levels, and improved the insulin sensitivity Jang et al. (2008) Improved glucose tolerance, amplified adipose tissue adiponectin making, lowered insulin conflict, and pro-inflammatory cytokines with IL-1β, TNF-α, and partial white adipose tissue macrophage permeation in obese, leptindeficient ob/ob C57 BL/6J rats Weisberg et al. (2003) 2 Garlic Improved the hepatic glycogen equal and permitted amino acid content and dropped the glucose and triglyceride concentration Inhibited superoxide formation and lipid per-oxidation Blocked the AGEs synthesis Khan et al. (2012) Enhanced the liver glycogen and free amino acids contents that overwhelms the triglycerides level, liver serum proteins, and FBS Tripathi et al. (2011) Triggered many enzymes including lecithincholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), glucose-6phosphatase, and hexokinase, 3-hydroxy-3methylglutaryl (HMG) CoA reductase Noor, Bansal, and Vijayalakshmi (2013) Lessened the levels of anti-islet cell antibodies ICA, elevated pan innate cells marker (CD11b), the elevated pan B cell marker (CD19), and elevated pan T-cell marker (CD90) ...
  • ... The administration of a hydroalcoholic extract of turmeric to rabbits decreased the plasma cholesterol level and the susceptibility of the LDL to oxidation [105]. The ethanol extracts of C.longa L. suppressed the increase in blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetic KK-A y mice and stimulated human adipocyte differentiation which is associated with the PPAR-γ ligand binding activity [106]. Hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic action of dietary curcumin have also been evidenced in the experimentally induced diabetic condition in rats [103]. ...
  • ... Turmerone , curcuphenol and curlone (Fig 1)are the main sesquiterpenes in turmeric, with the concentrations of 30.0, 10.6 and 10,0% in the plant rhizomes, respectively [2]. Turmerone, one of the components responsible for the aroma of the C. longa essential oil, shows important biological properties such as inhibition of platelet aggregation [3] and antidiabetic [4]. Another important class of special metabolites present in C. longa are the diarylheptanoids, structurally related to curcumin (CUR), which is the most representative example of this group [5]. ...
  • ... It is used in Indian traditional medicine to treat anorexia, cough, diabetic wounds, urinary tract infection and liver disorder (Mohanty et al., 2004). Several compounds have been isolated from this plant which includes curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin and ar-turmerone (Kuroda et al., 2005). The insulinomimetic and stimulatory effect of aqueous extract of C. longa on insulin release from tissues involved in glucose homeostasis was reported by Mohankumar and McFarlane (2011). ...
  • ... Most of these ingredients exhibited both glucose and lipid lowering activities in experimental studies. The ingredients like Acorus calamus [6,7], Cyperus rotundus [8], Phyllanthus niruri [9], Tinospora cordiofolia [10], Curcuma longa [11], Berberis aristata [12], Piper longum [13,21], Coriandrum sativum [14], Terminalia chebula [15], Terminalia belerica [16] , Embelica offi- cinalis [17], Embelia ribes [18], Zingiber officinale [19], Piper nigrum [20], Hordeum vulgare [22], Ipomoea turpethum [23], Cinnamomum zeylanicum [24] and Asphaltum punjabianum [25] showed remarkable antidiabetic effects in several studies. Most of the important plant constituents of this formulation [15,21,24,25] including Commiphora wightii (Guggulu) [26] have demonstrated hypolipidemic effect. ...
    ... These plant ingredients showed antidiabetic activity by various mechanisms viz. insulin sensitizing activity [6] or regeneration of pancreatic beta cells [12], antioxidant action [8,18] or influencing insulin resistance [11] or by altering the carbohydrate metabolism [10] or insulin-like effect via peripheral glucose utilization. Thus, the antihyperglycaemic effect of the CPV may be attributed to the cumulative effect of these constituent plants. ...
  • ... (Sesamum indicum) [198] 21 Turmerin @BULLET Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) [162] 24 Current Medicinal Chemistry, 2016, Vol. 23, No. 29 Alam et al. (Table 4) contd…. [199] Curcuminoids 23 ...
  • ... In our study, curcumin may only activate PPAR? at high doses (above 20 ?M) in a luciferase reporter assay but could elevate the protein and mRNA levels of PPAR? and OCTN2 in a dose-dependent manner in SW480 cells, even at lower doses (5 and 10 ?M). However, curcumin has been reported to activate PPAR? (Kuroda et al., 2005; Nishiyama et al., 2005), and it is controversial whether this activation reflects curcumin directly binding to the receptor or is mediated through the effects of receptor expression or levels of the endogenous ligand 15d-PGJ 2 (Zhang et al., 2006; Narala et al., 2009). More studies are needed to clarify whether curcumin increases PPAR? activity through multiple pathways induced by curcumin. ...
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